It is difficult to find such religion that would be so powerful affected the fate of mankind, as Christianity did. It would seem that the emergence of Christianity is studied quite well. This is written a limitless amount of material. In this field, church authors, historians, philosophers, representatives of biblical criticism worked. This is understandable, because it was about the greatest phenomenon, under the influence of which modern Western civilization was actually developed. However, many more secrets keep one of the three world religions.
In the creation and development of a new world religion a confusing story. The emergence of Christianity is shrouded in secrets, legends, assumptions and assumptions. Not much is known about the approval of this exercise, which today confesses a quarter of the world's population (about 1.5 billion people). This can be explained by the fact that in Christianity it is much more distinct than in Buddhism or Islam, there is a supernatural beginning, faith in which is usually generating not only reverence, but also skepticism. Therefore, the history of the issue was subjected to significant falsification of various ideologues.
In addition, the emergence of Christianity, its spread was explosive. The process was accompanied by an active religious ideological and political struggle, significantly distorting the historical truth. Disputes on this issue continue to the present.
Birth of the Savior
The emergence and spread of Christianity is associated with the birth, acts, death and the resurrection of only one person - Jesus Christ. The basis of the new religion was faith in the Divine Savior, whose biography is served mainly the gospel - four canonical and numerous apocryphic.
In church literature, in detail, in detail, describes the occurrence of Christianity. Briefly try to transfer the main events captured in the Gospels. They argue that in the city of Nazareth (Galilee), Archangel Gabriel appeared in the city of Mary and announced the forthcoming birth of the Son, but not from the earthly father, but from the Holy Spirit (God).
Maria gave birth to this son in the times of the Juda Tsar Herod and the Roman Emperor of August in the city of Bethlehem, where she went along with her husband, a carpenter Joseph, to participate in the census of the population. The shepherds notified by the angels were welcomed by the infant who received the name Jesus (the Greek form of Jewish "Yeshua", which means "God-Savior", "God saves me").
On the move in the sky stars about this event, the eastern wise men were recognized - Magi. Following the star, they found a home and baby, in which Christ recognized ("Anointed", "Messia"), and brought her gifts. Then the family, saving the child from the distraught king Herod, went to Egypt, returned, settled in Nazareth.
In the apocryphal gospels, numerous details about life at the time of Jesus have been told. But the canonical gospel reflects only one episode from his childhood - a trip for a holiday in Jerusalem.
Podral, Jesus adopted the experience of the father, became a mason and a carpenter, after the death of Joseph fed and cared for the family. When Jesus was 30 years old, he met the Baptist John and baptized in the Jordan River. In the future, he collected 12 apostles pupils ("Messengers") and, together with them, for 3.5 years of the city and the village of Palestine, preached a completely new, peaceful religion.
In the Nagorno Protection, Jesus substantiated moral principles that became the basis of the worldview of the new era. At the same time, he worked different wonders: she walked through the water, the hands with a touch resurrected the dead (three such cases were recorded in the gospels), healed patients. Also could take a storm, turn water in wine, "five bread and two fish" to feed the existence of 5,000 people. However, for Jesus there was a difficult time. The emergence of Christianity is connected not only with miracles, but also the sufferings that he experienced later.
Pogging on Jesus
No one perceived Jesus as a Messiah, and his relatives even decided that he was "out of herself", that is, became violent. Only during the transformation of the disciple of Jesus understood his greatness. But the preaching activities of Jesus caused irritation of the High Priests, who led the Jerusalem Temple, who declared his lzhemesis. After a mystery evening held in Jerusalem, Jesus for 30 Srebrenikov betrayed one of his students-followers - Judas.
Jesus, like anyone, besides Divine manifestations, felt pain and fear, so that I survived the "passion". Crashed on the Eleon Mountain, he was convicted by the Jewish religious court - Sanhedrin - and sentenced to death. The sentence approved the governor of Rome Pontius Pilate. During the reign of the Roman emperor Tiberius of Christ, the martyr's execution was crucified on the cross. At the same time, wonders again happened: the earthquake was rolled, the sun was alarmed, and according to the legend "the coffins revealed" - they resurrected some dead.
Jesus was buried, but on the third day he rose and soon came the disciples. According to the canons, he ascended on the cloud to the sky, promising afterwards to return, in order to resurrect the dead, in the terrible court to condemn the acts of everyone, to overthrow the hell of sinners for eternal torments, and the righteous people to have an eternal life in the "mountainous" Jerusalem, the Heavenly Kingdom of God. It can be said that from this point on, an amazing story begins - the emergence of Christianity. The assurances of the apostles have spread a new teaching throughout Malaya Asia, Mediterranean and other regions.
The foundation of the Church was the feast of the Fathest of the Holy Spirit on the Apostles 10 days after the Ascension, thanks to which the apostles were able to preach the new teaching in all ends of the Roman Empire.
As the emergence and development of Christianity in the early stage, it is not known for certain. We know what the authors of the Gospels - Apostles told. But the gospel differ, and significantly, regarding the interpretation of the image of Christ. John Jesus is God in human court, the author of the author of the author in every way emphasizes, and Matthew, Mark and Luke attributed the quality of an ordinary person.
The existing gospels are written in Greek, common in the world of Hellenism, while the real Jesus and his first followers (Judeo-Christians) lived and acted in another cultural environment, communicated in the Aramaic language distributed in Palestine and in the Middle East. Unfortunately, not a single Christian document in the Aramaic language has not been preserved, although the early Christian authors mention the Gospels written in this language.
After the ascension of Jesus, the sparks of the new religion should seemed to fool, since among his followers did not have educated preachers. In fact, it happened so that the new faith was established on the entire planet. According to church views, the emergence of Christianity is due to the fact that humanity, retreating from God and carried away the illusion of domination over the forces of nature with the help of magic, still looking for the path to God. Society, having passed a difficult path, "matured" to the recognition of a single Creator. Scientists also tried to explain the avalanche-like spreading of a new religion.
Backgrounds of the emergence of a new religion
Theologies and scientists have been fighting over the phenomenal, rapid spread of a new religion for 2000, trying to figure out these reasons. The emergence of Christianity, according to ancient sources, was recorded in the Labor Provinces of the Roman Empire and in Rome itself. This phenomenon was due to a number of historical factors:
- Increased operation of subordinate and enslaved Rome of peoples.
- Defeats rebel slaves.
- The crisis of polytetic religions in ancient Rome.
- Social need for a new religion.
The creeds, ideas and ethical principles of Christianity manifested themselves on the basis of certain public relations. In the first centuries of our era, the Romans finished the conquest of the Mediterranean. Submission of states and peoples, Rome destroyed their independence, originality of public life. By the way, in this, the emergence of Christianity and Islam is something similar. Only the development of two world religions at a different historic background was proceeded.
At the beginning of the I century, Palestine also became the province of the Roman Empire. The inclusion of it in the global empire led to the integration of the Jewish religious and philosophical thought from Greco-Roman. They contributed to this and numerous communities of the Jewish diaspora in different ends of the Empire.
Why a new religion spread over record short time
The emergence of Christianity A number of researchers range to the historical miracle: too many factors coincided for the rapid, "explosive" spread of a new teaching. In fact, it was important that this course had a wide and effective ideological material, which served him for the formation of his own creed and cult.
Christianity as a world religion has developed gradually under the influence of various currents and beliefs of the Eastern Mediterranean and the Four Asia. Ideas were drawn from religious, literary and philosophical sources. It:
- Jewish Messianism.
- Jewish sectarianism.
- Hellenistic syncretism.
- Oriental religions and cults.
- Folk Roman cults.
- The cult of the emperor.
- Philosophical ideas.
Alloy of philosophy and religion
A considerable role was provided to the emergence of Christianity philosophy - skepticism, epicureism, kinism, and stoicism. Noticeably influenced the "average platonism" of Philon with Alexandria. Jewish theologians, he actually moved to the service to the Roman emperor. By allegorical interpretation of the Bible, Filon sought to merge the monotheism of the Jewish religion (faith in a single God) and elements of Greco-Roman philosophy.
No less influenced the moral teachings of the Roman philosopher-stop and writer Seneki. He considered the Life of Earth as a run-up to rebirth in the other world. The main thing for man Seneca considered the foundation of the Freedom of the Spirit through the awareness of the Divine necessity. That is why later researchers called the dedication of Christianity.
The emergence of Christianity is inextricably linked with the problem of dating events. The fact is indisputable - it originated in the Roman Empire at the turn of our era. But when exactly? And in what place the grand Empire, which covered the whole Mediterranean, a significant part of Europe, Maly Asia?
According to the traditional interpretation, the emergence of basic postulates falls on the years of the preaching activities of Jesus (30-33 years. N. E.). Scientists with this partially agree, but add that the creed is drawn up after the execution of Jesus. Moreover, of the four canonically recognized authors of the New Testament, only Matthew and John were students of Jesus Christ, were witnessing events, that is, they were contacted with the immediate source of teachings.
Other (Mark and Luka) Part of the information has already taken indirectly. Obviously, the formation of the creed was stretched over time. It is natural. After all, for the "revolutionary explosion of ideas", during the times of Christ, the evolutionary process of mastering and developing these ideas by his students, who gave the teaching completed appearance. This is noticeable when analyzing the new Testament, whose writing continued until the end of the I century. True, still there are various books of books: the Christian tradition limits the writing of the sacred texts by a period of 2-3 decades after the death of Jesus, and some researchers stretch this process until the middle of the II century.
The emergence of Christianity in Russia
It is historically known that the doctrine of Christ extends to Eastern Europe in the 9th century. On Russia, the new ideology came from some kind of single center, but on different channels:
- From the Black Sea region (Byzantium, Chersonese);
- Because of the Varangian (Baltic) sea;
- On the Danube.
Archaeologists indicate that certain groups of Russov accepted baptism already in the 9th century, and not in the X century, when Vladimir died Kievlyan in the river. Previously, Kiev was baptized Chersonesos - the Greek Colony in the Crimea, with which the Slavs supported close ties. The contacts of the Slavic peoples with the population of ancient Taurida with the development of economic relations were constantly expanding. The population constantly participated not only in the material, but also the spiritual life of the colonies, where the first exiles - Christians went into the link.
Also possible intermediaries in the penetration of religion in East Slavic lands could be goths moving from the shores of the Baltic to the Black Sea. Among them, in the IV century, Christianity was distributed in the form of Arianism Bishop Ulfil, who belongs to the translation of the Bible to the Gothic language. Bulgarian Linguist V. Georgiev puts forward the assumption that the Praslavyan words "Church", "Cross", "Lord" were probably inherited from the Gothic language.
The third way is the Dunny, who is associated with Chirill and Methodius enlighteners. The main leitmotif of Kirillo-Methodius teaching was the synthesis of achievements of Eastern and Western Christianity on the basis of Praslavansky culture. The enlighteners created the original Slavic alphabet, transferred liturgical and church-canonical texts. That is, Cyril and Methodius laid the foundations of the church organization on our lands.
The official date of the baptism of Russia is considered to be 988, when Prince Vladimir I Svyatoslavovich is massively baptized in Kiev residents.
The emergence of Christianity is briefly described impossible. Too many historical mysteries, religious and philosophical disputes unfolds around this issue. However, the idea, which, bearing this teaching, is more important: human-minded, compassion, help neighbor, condemnation of shameful deeds. It does not matter how a new religion originated, it is important that she brought to our world: faith, hope, love.
Historically, there was no religion "suddenly" from nowhere. Each teaching has a history, backgrounds of the occurrence, sources of cult. Based on what religion did Christianity originated? What, from a scientific point of view, influenced the formation of a new religion in the first century?
Roots of world religions
Christianity arose as a religious branch of Judaism, formed in the Jewish people in the era of the second temple. What is this era and what remarks the ancient Judaism?
It is considered, Judaism, like religion, arose three thousand years ago And he is the oldest monotheistic teaching of mankind. Initially, belief was a classical paganism with his pantheon of the gods, where Yahweh played the role of the main deity. Over time, the role of secondary deities has decreased, and Yahwe remained the only God.
The development period of Judaism Until the VI century BC. Call biblical Judaism. The era began after and, continuing to II century AD, refers to the Judaism of the second temple.
The era was not randomly identified. The end of the first era was marked by the conquest of the Jewish kingdom by the Babylonian king Nebuchadnezzar II. After a turn of the uprisings of the Israelis, the Babels deported a part of the "restless" population into other provinces of the Empire. The period of the Babylonian Iga, which lasted 70 years, the Jews are called the Babylonian captivity.
The yoke was shot by the Persian king. The new ruler allowed exiles to return to their homeland, where the people of the Israelites laid the same temple, putting the beginning of a new era.
Why did Christian branch appear?
In the first century N.E. Judea, surviving the Persian and Greek dominion, turned out to be convened again, now the Romans.
The empire policy, which was built on sucking money from conquered provinces, provoked poverty, crime growth and corruption. Sweeping from the Roman oppression and poverty, in Judea, sects began to occur, which were based on the parish of God's Messenger - the Messiah, who will release the Jewish people and establish a fair world.
Christianity has become one of these Jews. There were others - Sadducei, Pharisees, Essei and Zelota. Considering that the dominant Judaism was confessed by noble Jews that did not need the arrival of the Messiah, as they lived in wealth, the lower christians were the lower segments of the population - slaves, freedoms, poor.
In addition to Jesus Christ, many other Messines appeared in Judea. Any opponent of power gathered around himself people could declare himself a Messiah, say that he receives direct instructions from God and came to save the people. Some of them, such as John the Baptist or Simon Mag, were even popular Christ.
What did Christianity differ from Judaism?
The first Christian apostles and the prophets continued to consider themselves the Jews on religion, and the main sacred text remained the Jewish Bible.
The main difference was Three main dogmas : Original sin, the second coming of Jesus Christ and the atonement of sins. There are no such dogmas in Judaism.
So, from the point of view of Christians, all people are sinful by birth due to the sin of Adam. Jesus Christ redeemed this sin, because if everyone became sinful because of one sinful man, then one righteous person can be made back all the innocent people.
From the point of view of the Jews, all people are born in innocent and make their own conscious choice - sin or not.
In Christianity, there is an idea that people could not achieve salvation themselves and for this they needed a Messiah. In Judaism, salvation can be achieved by good actions. Finally, in Judaism, Jesus is not recognized by the Messiah at all.
Why did Christianity crowd out other sects?
If Jesus Christ did not cruce on the cross, it was quite possible that instead of Christianity today would have existed any other, similar religion. It must be said that the prefect (governor) of Jews tried to save the defendant from execution and gave way only under the pressure of the crowd.
After the crucifixion of the Messiah, Christians stopped being afraid to die "for the idea". They destroyed the images of the pagan gods, began to fight against power, destabilized the situation and involved all new adherents. Christianity has become dangerous for Rome. Guided by the Principle: "You can not win - the head" Romans legalized religion, and after they made it state.
CHRISTIANITY (Greek. Χριστιανισμός lat. Christianismus), the largest world religion based in 1 V. Jesus Christ . Presented by numerous (more than 20 thousand) confessions and sects, each of which claims the status of true Church . The largest of them (2015): Catholicism (approx. 1.2 billion believers), Split. denominations Protestantism (approx. 800 million), Orthodoxy (OK. 280 million), Ancient Naval Church (antihalkidonites; see in Art. Chalkidonites ) I. Assyrian church of the East (70-80 million believers).
History. Formation of Christianity
"The descent of the Holy Spirit on the apostles." Fragment of mosaic. Start 11 V. Osias-Lucas Monastery (Greece).
(1 century) happened in line with prophecies Bible about the coming Messiah . Initially, the preaching of Christ and Apostles Visited B. Judee. and neighboring areas and was addressed to the Jews, but subsequently turned to all peoples. After the resurrection of Christ (approx. 33) there was a single community of believers - the church (see Art. Pentecost ). Pavel and others. Apostles preached Gospel Among the Greco-Roman population of Syria (in the capital of which, Antiochi. The term "Christian"), Malaya Asia, Greece and Rome originated. Jerusalem Cathedral (OK 50) freed Christian non-Jews from compliance Judaism . Closely connected with the Jewish diaspora early x. Subsequently, especially after the destruction of the second Jerusalem Temple (70), addressed from Judaism; At the same time, the Old Testament remained part Scripture .
Spread of Christianity
(1 - NCh. 4 centuries) in Rome. The empires occurred in the conditions of law. The prohibition imposed on the followers of the teaching no later than the con. 1 in. For refusal to participate in the official. Relig. Christians were accused of "wormless" and insulting the state; The closeness of their assembly gave rise to rumors about the extreme amorality of the teachings. During this period there were persecution of Christians, the largest - during the reign of emperors Valeriana (253-260), Diocletian и Galery. (293-311). But mass executions for beliefs were excited by sympathy, and courageous behavior Martyrs Caused respect for H. Days of memory of victims gave rise to the tradition of reverence Saints (See in Art. Canonization ). At this time, the formation of Christian worship , registration of 3 priesthood degrees ( diacon , Presbyter , Bishop ) and the church organization on the ground (see Diocese , Church cathedrals ). Christian Lit-Ra arises: Apologists of early Christian refute the accusations against H., in controversy against Gnosticism and etc. Yerezi Dogmatic develops. H. spread across Rome. Empires, as well as in the buffer states of the Roman-Iranian border, in one of which (orrosen) even received the status of the official. Religions (202). K 301 traditionally applies to H. in Armenia.
The era of the universal cathedrals
(4-9 centuries, see Ecumenical cathedrals ) Takes the beginning of the appeal imp. Konstantina Great (312) and publications Milan Edicta (313), removed from H. all restrictions. In conditions of law. Freedom and patronage from the emperors H. became the main thing, and with the con. 4 in. And the only officer. Religion Rome. Empire. Deployed the construction of temples, develops pilgrimage and reverence relics and Power . The underlying H. Democratication of the world and spiritual began to decorate the system t. N. Symphony of the authorities : The state and the church act as independent partial institutions that ensure the material and spiritual well-being of society. Overlooking norms like carriage ( Dogmata. ) and disciplinary ( canons ) Install at the bishops' cathedrals. But their maintenance is entrusted to imp. Power, which in special cases initiates common universal universal cathedrals, the first one took place in 325, and the last, 7th, - in 787 (finally approved in 843). During the discussions on triadology (exercises on St. Trinity) and Christology The pleiad of authoritative writers (holy fathers), whose opinions were determined by the direction of theological thoughts. The teachings rejected by the church tradition are condemned as heretical, their leaders and adepts are exposed Anathema and links. The decoration of a clear distinction between orthodoxy (correct opinion) and heresy often took painful forms and caused an outdation from the official ("Cafe", "Orthodox") x. Oppositioning currents. Arianism In 4-7 centuries. spread among GERM. nations (ready, vandals, langobards); Non-historical In 5-7 centuries. Gradually rooted in the sirosal church of the East in Iran; Monophizite in 5-6 centuries. It became popular among the Zap. Syrians, Copts, Armenians and Ethiopians. In the cathedral, or patristic, the period is born and is growing rapidly Monastia . Embedded with church-adm. Device and system 5 Patriarchay . Continues missionary . H. spread among the "barbaric" peoples of Zap. Europe (Ireland, England, Germany) was rooted in Aksum (4th century), Nubia (6 century), Georgia and Kavk. Albania (4th century), reached India and China. To start. 7th century H., despite the inside. separation dominates among world religions. But the situation changes dramatically with the advent Islam .
(9-15 centuries) is characterized by unrelenting Natios from Muslim. The world and the increase in the alienation between Christians of the West and East of Europe. Arab conquest 7-8 centuries. led to a decrease in the territory of Vost. Roman Empire ( Byzantium ), Middle East, North. Africa and Spain fell under power Khali. Fata. . Laws Shariat It is determined by H. as a bogroxted religion, "spoiled" Christians who are obliged to submit to Muslims, on certain conditions, receiving protection (see in Art. Zimmia ). In zap. Europe against the background of degradation of politics. Institutions intensified the role of the papacy (see Pope Rimsky ), which has become applied to politics. power. Against this background, there was a church gap between Rome and Constantinople (1054), aggravated by conflicts between Byzantium and participants Crusades Fourth of which ended with the looting of Constantinople (1204). Attempts by imprisonment UII church (Lyon, 1274; Florence, 1439) did not led to the resolution of dogmatic., Ritual and other contradictions (eg, about Filioque , Tselibata , Purgatory ). European H. was divided into Latin (Catholic) and Greek (Orthodox), in the field of the latter, the countries of Vost were found. Europe (except Poland, Czech Republic, Hungary and Croatia) and Rus (see Empty of Rus ). To 15 c. Most of the Orthodox States, including Byzantium (1453), were ruled Ottoman Empire , and the role of the leader of the Orthodox world has moved to Russian state . There was a doctrine "Moscow - Third Rome" . In the epoch Revival ideas spread in Europe Humanism ascending to tongue. Antiquity and in many ways alien to Christianity.
(16-19 centuries) noted by the deep crisis of Western H. Uncoorkovny Relig. movements previously overwhelmed with Inquisition , came out of control and received support from National. Elite. As a result during Reformation from Roman Catholic Church Separated t. n. Protestants Split. Sens (see Lutheranism , Calvinism , Anglican Church , Anabaptists ). After Counter-Formation and relig. The wars of Europe turned out to be split into Catholic and Protestant regions. This separation was transferred to colonial countries, primarily to the south. and sowing. America, where H. became the dominant religion. Secularization And ideas Enlightenment contributed to the further weakening of the traditions. Relig. Institutions. Ideal flows appeared, openly bringing with Christianity. Decristianization in France (1790s) led to immigrants over the clergy and the destruction of religious buildings.
The newest period
(20-21 centuries) is characterized by progressive dehristianization. In Russia, since 1917, the dehristianization process was radical and accompanied by mass persecutions (see Novomarticles ) and active propaganda Atheism . However, it is in Russia in Russia. 20 V. There was an increase in the influence of H. in public and cultural life. Attempts by a systematic response to new challenges and overcoming disagreement Christians became Ecumenism and creating World Council of Churches (1961), reform movement in Catholicism, the idea of a Diesel Cathedral in Orthodoxy and Interfaith Dialogues.
Kiska cross-key, made commissioned by Patriarch Nikon "Mero and the similarity of the Cross of Christ." Located in the temple of the St. Sergius of Radonezhsky in the wipes (Moscow). Photo by A.I. Nagaeva
H., as well as Islam, inherits the idea of a single God, the owner of absolute goodness, absolute knowledge and absolute power, which has its reason, in relation to which all creatures and items are his creations: everything is created by God from nothing. God does not need a world and made it not in the course of any necessary process, but in the free act of will. A personal understanding of the absolute characteristic of the biblical tradition was brought to H. to the new stage, which is expressed in the two center. The dogmas constituting its most important difference from Judaism and Islam, - the trinity (see in Art. Trinity ) I. AVAILABLE . According to the trinity dogma, internal. Life of the deity is a personal attitude of three Ipostasia , or people: Father (original originally), son, or Logos. (semantic and executive principle), and Holy Spirit ("Life-giving" principle). The son "is born" from his father, St. Spirit "comes" from the Father (according to Orthodox teaching) or from his father and son (according to Catholic. Teaching), but both "birth" and "discharge" takes place not in time, but In eternity: all three faces have always existed ("boring") and are equal to dignity ("equally"). Creation of X. requires not to mix individuals and not to share entities; In a clear sowing of the levels of entity and hat, the specifics of the Christian trinity are relatively with the triads of other religions and mythologies (eg, Trimurti. Hinduism). The trinity hat is not interchangeable twins or masks of a single impersonal element, they are "not enough", i.e., certainly retain personal independence, but it is as personalities "inseparable" and "unique", i.e., absolutely transparent and permeable each friend in unique love. Analogy of this love on the lower levels of the hierarchy of being is love between human "hypostasi", human personalities. This love is not understood as "erotic. need " Plato , similar to the extraimed strength of gravity, but as Christian love - ἀγάπη. , i.e. sacrificial will to full dedication and openness.
The image of the intermediary between the Divine and human is known for the most. Mythologies and religions. However, Christ is not a demigod, that is, the intermediate being is lower than God and above the person: according to the dogma of the award, it combines all the completeness of both the Divine and human nature ("not through confusion of entities, but through the unity of the face" - " QuicumQue », 4-5 centuries). The paradoxical formula of the Chalkidon Cathedral (451) "insensitive and inseparable" gives, in essence, universal for H. The scheme of relations between the divine and human, transcendent and immanent. The awareness is understood as a single and unique, not allowing K.L. Reincarnations, eternal returns and other attributes of the pagan and east. Mystics: "Christ died once for our sins, and on the resurrection of the dead no longer dies!" - such is the thesis prescribed Augustine against the Pythagorean doctrine. Hence the value of historic. The time to which the phenomenon of the Superior Histor was attached to the Pilate symbol - "when Potted Pilate", mystich .-century. Theology).
The convergence of God into the world of people is "Kenosis" (Greek. έένωσις - devastation, humiliation), understood as a free act of love and humility by the Divine, giving an unconditional ethic. Norma for human self-determination in the world. At the same time, Christ shares not only common nature. The conditions of human existence, but also specially unfavorable social conditions. In his quality of the executed righteous, Christ Gospels comparable with the Socrates of Apology Plato; But if Socrates with its social position of a free Athens citizen is guaranteed from gross physical. Violence and his "beautiful" death from the bowl with Cycuta radiates philos. The illusion of overcoming the death of the power of thought, then Christ dies the "slave" death, underpirers "the most severe and disgusting torture" as the cross calls Cicero , after a batch, cakes and pleutkov (these features of suffering and insecurity were partly anticipated in the figurative system of the Old Testament - Wed. Motives of the Tarrow of the righteous in Psalms and especially the figure of the "Slave Yahwe", Is. 53). Moreover, "Kenosis" of God in Christ comes so far that he is in his own. The soul at the crucial moment is deprived of a protective stop. Ataraction And devoted to cruel bore (Luke 22:44) with the fear of death and a longing of the bogobel.
The situation of a person is thinking in X. Extremely contradictory. Man is created as a carrier of the "image and similarity" of God; In this original condition, and ultimately of God about man mystich. Dignity belongs not only to the human spirit (as in the ancient idealism, in Gnosticism and Manichaean ), but also the body. However, the sin (the first act of disobedience to God committed by the first people, see Sin is original ) I destroyed the god like a person, after which it became necessary awareness: "How will a man enter God, if God does not enter a person?" - Write Irina Lyonsky . This creates a prerequisite for the "passage" of a person (see ESChatology ), Whose existence thinks as it were, "open" vertically, in the direction of God (therefore, the transcendental possibilities of human nature are non-convicted: "We are now the children of God, but not yet discovered that we will", 1 in. 3: 2). Christ defeated the power of sin, "redeemed" people, as if bought them from slavery in Satan, taking tortures and painful death (the image of this death on the cross is the emotional and ideological center of all Christian symbolism). H. Highly appreciates the cleansing role of suffering - not as itself (the purpose of man is a paradise bliss, free from suffering), but as the strongest tool in the fight against world evil: only "taking their own cross", a person can win evil in himself and around himself . The convergence of God to a person is at the same time the requirement of the ascent of a person to God; Nature breakthrough. The world order from God is a challenge addressed to a person from whom the same breakthrough is expected to force him "higher than human" behavior ( Thomas Akvinsky ): A person should not be simply brought to obedience to God and the fulfillment of the commandments, as in Judaism and Islam, but is transformed and "conjugated." If he does not fulfill this appointment and will not justify the sacrificial death of Christ, then forever will die: the middle between glory and the destruction is not.
However, the transcendental dignity of a person remains on Earth rather than the intimate opportunity than a visual reality. First, the free Will of a person can reject the divine giving and destroy itself. Secondly, if a person makes the "correct" choice, its outcome beyond the world is carried out only for mystical. His level of being and deprived of K.L. clarity - it is available to all the suffering of the world, moreover, he is not protected from the torment of the Spirit, from temptations, internal. humiliation, self-evidence. The Christian is strongly prohibited in K.L. Situations consider themselves absolutely right, and X. creates a truly virtuoso culture of the discretion of his own. guilt (eg, in the "confession" Augustine). It is in criticism. The state of complete loss of confidence in their forces comes into effect grace : "The power of God in the glibliators is performed" (2 Cor. 12: 7). "For God, - exclaims M. Luther - there is a god of humiliated, suffering, explotant, oppressed and those who are completely addressed in nothing, and the nature of it is to rise humiliated, saturate, enlighten the blinders, consulting suffering and explored, to justify sinners, live dead, save desperate and Condemnated, etc. For he is an almighty Creator, from nothing. To gain salvation, a person is urged to see anything in herself and in the act of humility to reveal this nothing to God by providing him to create from nothing "spiritual gifts", as he created from nothing.
For the Christian Consciousness, any visual well-being of a person only shams his metaphysic. humiliation and, on the contrary, any visual humiliation can serve as welcome foil for intimately illustrative (James. 1: 9-10). Hence characteristic for the CP.-century. H. The cult of voluntary beggar, nature, silence, nurse, etc. "" Cardiac saving "," sweet crying "is also characteristic of psychology. Desirable from the point of view of H. The state of a person in this life is not spiritual anesthesia, not a calm painlessness of the stoic or Buddhist sage, but, on the contrary, the "heart is painful", the tension of the struggle and suffering for others. PS Joseph Volotsky Compare human thought with water: in a relaxed and carefree state, it spreads, and the arms cranted and care is rising in height. However, this involvement in what is happening is thinking only to spiritual-ethic. The planes of love, compassion and self-conjugation, but not to the material plan of being, to which the New Testament formula belongs to "have, no matter." So in the Christian consciousness combines the dispenser and otherworld. According to the Formula of the PRP. Maxim confessor The life should not be considered sensually and not insensitive, but co-sensual - the formula of unity with the world in love and care from the world in Askise as Ethich. Correla dogmatic. "Insensitia and inseparalism."
This concept is connected alien dr. Religions concept sacraments As a special cult action coming beyond the rituality: if the rites symbolically correlate the human life with Divine Being and this guarantees the stability of equilibrium in the world and man, the sacrament really introduces the divine into life of a person and serves as a guarantee of transformation, breakthrough eschatology. Time is already in the present. The most important of the sacraments recognized by all religions - Baptism (Perfect inertia of hereditary sinfulness) and Eucharist , or Communion (bumping bread and wine, mystically transformed into the flesh and the blood of Christ, aimed at combining the believer with Christ, so that Christ "lived in it"). Orthodoxy and Catholicism recognize another 5 sacraments rejected by Protestantism: Miropomanazing aims to inform the Mysich Believement. Gifts of St. Spirit and as if having grown baptism; repentance , or Confession ; Priesthood (Erend to the spiritual san, which gives not only the authority to learn and lead believers, but also - unlike the clergy of Judaism and Islam - the authorities to commit sacraments); marriage , understood as complicity in mystic. marriage of Christ and church; Cathedral, or Surgery (accompanied by prayers to the anointing of the body of the body sick with a little like the last tool to return to life and at the same time farewell to death). The concept of the sacrament and ethics Asceticism We are interrelated in X.: The last, unlike, for example, from Buddhist, Manichean or Stoic asceticism, sets the goal of not only the spirit of the spirit from the flesh, but, ideally, cleansing and consecrated by the flesh itself, its transition to a state of eschatological. Enlightenment. The ideal of asceticism - Virgin Mary, according to legend, bodily "perceived in heavenly glory." It is characteristic that in Protestantism, where the experience of the sacrament is weakening, ascetic disappears naturally. Ideal (abolition of monastics, reverence of the Virgin Mary, etc.).
Love, which in H. ontologically comprehends as the essence of the Divine ("God is love" - 1 in. 4: 8) and in Ethics. The plan is prescribed to a person as the Higher Commandment, also constitute the basis of Christian social utopia, which changed significantly from time John Zlatousta to Sovr. Christian Socialism and left groupings Catholic. Movement, but relig.-Ethich. The structure remained the same. We are talking about every member of the Society of Love to accept all the social disharmony on himself and the most abolished, "redeemed" her. But for this requires Christian love ἀγάπη. not dividing people on their own and strangers, on friends and enemies, "not seeking their own" (1 Cor. 13: 5), - the identity of the limit dedication and marginal extension (Matthew 5: 43-44). In their breadth ἀγάπη. Even passes the limits of ethics, because it stops dividing people on good and bad: the sample is taken by the elemental action of God, who "commands the sun to be ascended over evil and kind and sends rain on the righteous and unjust" (MF. 5:45). This implies a dedication from love as a personal interest, from love for himself and to "its own" in others, which is expressed in the paradoxical requirement to "wave" their relatives and their life of their own (LC. 14:26), i.e. in the requirement of self-producing . According to M. M. Tareev "The commandment of love for enemies is not an expansion of natural love for your own, but has its foreign commandment for hate to your" (the foundations of Christianity. Sergiev Posad, 1908. T. 3: Christian worldview. P. 113). H. puts accessories to some national, ethnic, family or other "body", at the place of sheltering under the "skin" of this collective organism, the ideal of all-openness achieved through extension. In any human team of Christians "Aliens and Wanderers" (1 Pet. 2:11); They, as the Anonymous Early Christian Monument "Message to Dioogenetus" says, "have a residence permit, but citizenship in heaven"; "We do not have a permanent hail here, but the upcoming coming" (Heb. 13: 13-14). A more sharp opposite of the ancient ideal of citizenship is difficult to imagine. People who came out of the "natural" ties form a Christian elite, which stands out from the early times (Virgin, perfect), and from 4 c. Constituted in monk. The monastic team was considered by its first theorists as an antsocium, where the power of old societies is canceled. standards and the opportunity to implement utopia ("Special Country" in the description Athanasius the Great settlements Egypt. Monks: "There was no one here, who would have done or would have passed the lawlessness, they did not know anything about the hated document of the tax collector"). The dream of Athanasius about the monastery as a refuge of conscience and spirituality in an unscrupulous and confused society comes to life in the early Francication with his disgusting to property as a source of disagreement between people (see Francis Assisi ), Rus. Nastyustants (PRP. Neil Surovsky , Savolzhsky elders, etc.), etc.
However, H. There is religion not only renunciation of the world, but also actions in the world, its center. Ideas are not connected with monasses, but with a community as a whole, with the church. X. It is possible without monastics (it did without him in the first 3 centuries and without him in Protestantism), but unthinkable without the idea of the church, which thinks not only as the earthly realization of the plan of God, but - as a keeper of a collective "orthodox" experience - as Gnoseologic. Criterion for the knowledge of God: From the point of view, H. person can adequately recognize and perceive Revelation Not as a separate individual, but within communication with all members of the Church, as alive and dead.
The history of the emergence of Christianity
Christianity belongs to one of the three world's largest religions. According to the number of adherents and the distribution territory, Christianity is several times superior to Islam and Buddhism. The basis of religion is the recognition of Jesus from Nazareth Messia, faith in his resurrection and following his teachings. Before the formation of his formation, Christianity has passed a long period.
The land of Christianity is considered to be Palestine, which at that time (I century) was under the rule of the Roman Empire. In the first years of its existence, Christianity was able to significantly expand to a number of other countries and ethnic groups. Already in 301, Christianity acquired the status of the official state religion of the Great Armenia.
The origin of the Christian creed was directly related to the old-fashioned Judaism. According to Jewish belief, God had to send her son's sown to Earth, which his blood purifies humanity from sins.
According to dogmatics of Christianity, Jesus Christ, a direct descendant of David, which was also indicated in Scripture. The emergence of Christianity to some extent carried out a split in Judaism: Jews became the first newly oppressed Christians.
But a significant part of the Jews could not recognize Jesus Messia and thus retained Judaism as an independent religion.
According to the Gospel (the teachings of the New Testament), after the ascension of Jesus Christ in Heaven, his faithful disciples, by converging the sacred flame, acquired the opportunity to speak in different languages, and they went to distribute Christianity to different countries of the world. So before our time, written memos about the activities of the Apostle Peter, Paul and Andrei First Called, who preached Christianity in the territory of the future Kievan Rus.
The difference of christianity from paganism
Speaking about the origin of Christianity, it should be noted that the first followers of Jesus were exposed to terrifying persecutions. Initially, the activities of Christian preachers were adopted in the bayonets by the Jewish clergy, which did not accept the teachings of Jesus. Later, after the Audit of Jerusalem, the persecution of Roman pagans began.
The Christian teaching was a complete antipode of paganism, it condemned luxury, polygamy, slavement - all that was characteristic of the pagan society. But his main difference was faith in one God, monotheism. Naturally, such a state of affairs did not suit the Romans.
They adopted strict measures to stop the activities of Christian preachers: blasphemous executions were applied to them. So until 313, when the Roman Emperor Konstantin not only stopped the persecution of Christians, but also made Christianity to the state religion.
In Christianity, as in every religion, there are pros and cons. But his appearance, undoubtedly, raised the world to a more sublime spiritual level. Christianity preaches the principles of mercy, good and love to the world around the world, which is important for the high mental development of man.
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Adoption of Christianity in Armenia
The adoption of Christianity in Armenia is one of the most amazing events of world history.
Armenia is the first Christian country. It is here in 301g. For the first time, Christianity acquired the status of state religion. This event is associated with the names of the king Trudat III and the first patriarch of the Christian world Gregory of the Enlightener.
This incident has many mysterious sides, which are still puzzling historians. In addition, the adoption of Christianity was unprecedented, it was also the only case when the change of religion occurred without changing power and without the impact of a more powerful culture.
The powerful and cruel king Trudat III in every way pursued Christians, the bloodthirsty killed them, applied the most heartless and brutal punishments and did not allow religious religion. And so the same king tredat, famous as a solid and powerful ruler, recognizes Christianity and orders to spread religion throughout the country.
To the question of what happened to the king, we are responsible for a dramatic extraordinary story that has come down to the present day.
In the middle of the II century. In Armenia, the rules is a powerful and intelligent king of Josra. During his reign, Armenia blew greatly: expanded its borders, defeated all his enemies, freed from the inner enemies. Princes that caused the harm to the country were punished, others who were in a quarrel were fastened. But one day, a plot of Josrova and treacherously kill.
The last order of the dying king was to track down and kill together with their families of everyone who was involved in the queuy. At this time, the killer's wife miraculously time to escape to Rome and takes her baby. Hoshrov's murder was ordered by the Persian king, with the aim of capturing the Armenian throne. The situation becomes dangerous and the threat falls on the entire royal family. It was necessary to save the son of the king and they also carry it into Rome.
The son of the king called trudat, and the son of the queuy was Grigory. The irony of the fate of them both dragged in Rome. They were two enemy clans from which they were saved. And many years later, they will baptize the Armenian people together.
From friendship before conclusion
Having matured, Gregory begins to realize the vice of his father. He understands that the king's killing was a great sin and a destructive event for Armenia.
In the sign of the redemption of the guilt of his father, he comes to the ministry of the son of the late king - trudat, which, however, did not even assume that Grigory Son Tsaruby was. Gregory serves sincerely and from all soul. He becomes the most faithful servant and a close friend of Tredat.
And despite the fact that Grigory was already a commitment to Christianity, and Trejat hated Christians, the latter loved his servant with all his heart and shared with him the most strict secrets.
And at the age of 287, the Roman emperor Dacletian sends truds to Armenia with a large army. Trudat drives out of the country who has established their Persian power, and becomes the king of Armenia. The king still could not accept the fact that Grigory Christian and on one of the pagan ceremonies, he orders him to submit to the Host of the pagan goddess. Gregory, naturally, refuses, so as he was very devoted to his faith, for which the king exposes him to torment and torture so that he refuses Christianity.
There was no intention to kill his best friend of the king, of course. But it is at this time that he is coming that Grigory, it turns out, the son of the queuy. Then TRADAT does not hold back his rage and throws the Gregory in the dungeon Khor of the Virap (deep pit), where they threw the most malicious enemies of the state. This dungeon was a deep pit, where the prisoners did not feed, did not hear, but simply pulled out from there dead in a month or two, when there was no turn of another prisoner.
It passes since the age of 13 and the king takes the incurable disease. The sister of the king recalls that Trruit had a devotee, who always turned out to be near in difficult situations and often even kept him. She immediately sends people for Gregory.
At first, it seemed to everyone that she went out, so as it was extremely unrealistic to in the dungeon, where people could not even withstand the month, Grigory turned out to be alive after the 13th year of imprisonment. But she insisted to check the dungeon. And when they checked, all covered the fear of the miracle seen. Grigory turned out to be alive.
All the fucking and barely breathing, Gregory lay on the ground. In the future, it became known that one of the employees of the prison, through the chimney heded her bread and water.
Gregory reports what kind of fate hedded his king and why he was released. Despite the fact that he had the right to hold offense at the king, he still manifests his devotion and treats Trejat. After that, Trudat recognizes Christianity and orders to spread religion throughout the country. And Grigory becomes Catholicos (Patriarch) of Armenia.
Have the motives? Armenian Apostolic Church
At first, it may seem strange that the story of several people decided the fate of the whole country. On the other hand, today, this is the most plausible and logical explanation of the radical change of the worldview, so hard in its positions of the king. It turns out extremely difficult to dig up the objective motives of the adoption of Christianity. It is difficult to find any elementary causes and explain what happened by the standard stories.
From the point of view of foreign policy, there was a complete failure. Persians a few centuries tried to return the Armenians to paganism.
Naturally, relations were spoiled and with the Roman emperor Dacletytian, who himself installed the trend on the throne, and who, being an enemy of Christians, naturally did not approve the behavior of Trudat. From the point of view of internal politics, everything was not so good too.
Internal wars and bloodshed began, cultural heritage was destroyed. Therefore, historians do not give a final and unequivocal answer, why it is Armenia and why it was such an absurd manner of Christianity.
There is a small motive of the adoption of Christianity, which, however, is unlikely to survive as the main reason. It is a failure in foreign policy that contains hidden success.
The adoption of Christianity of Armenia is dedicated to the cultural influence of powerful neighbors and becomes the path of creating its independent culture.
After 100 years, Armenians appear his writing and the age of sharp development of historiography and literature comes, which was called the Golden Age. And, of course, the change of religion did not occur so suddenly. There was a certain soil.
After the Resurrection of Christ, two of the 12-Apostles - Poda and Bartholomew arrived in Armenia. That is why the Armenian church is called Apostolic, as a sign that Armenians heard about Christian teaching from the apostles themselves. But Christianity originated in Armenia in the life of Christ.
Historians mention the first Christian Tsar Abgar (the king of Christian - a separate Armenian kingdom), who believed that the cases of Christ were the affairs of God and wrote a letter to Christ with a request and invitation to his kingdom, to save their people.
Christ replied that he had things to be in Jerusalem, but he promised that he would send his student to him.
Thus, since the 1st century, Christianity penetrates into Armenia. At the end of the 3rd century, the Christian communities existed throughout the country, which served as the soil to proclaim the new religion as the main one.
At the same time, at the end of the 3rd century, paganism has greatly weakened. The priests did not perform the role of spiritual mentors. The abuse of social status, deception, intimidation and robbery of the population became the norm on the part of the clergy. The pagan faith was already far from the national traditional faith, from which the Armenians would hard to refuse. There were many borrowing from the Greek and Parfyan religions, and the originally Armenian was lost.
Moreover, in the time immemorial, Armenians worshiped one God, who also, as in Christianity, had three hatchers. It turns out if you judge strictly, the adoption of Christianity was a return to the monoboise and approaching the initial Armenian religion. Also, biblical teachings were very close to mentality, national customs and family traditions of Armenians. Thus, the people were morally ready for the adoption of a new faith.
It should be noted, however, the dark sides of the religious coup. The priests could not accept the fact that in one day, they lost all their powers and lost everything. They collected troops and directed them against Christians and the royal army. The situation began to find out when the Supreme Priest was killed. There were a lot of blood pouring.
The cultural heritage suffered very much. Along the country, pagan temples were destroyed or Christian was built in their place. Many sculptures and manuscripts were destroyed.
There is a common opinion that the Armenians had even his own writing, from which nothing remained, as Christians destroyed everything without thinking about cultural values.
* * *
Despite those troubled times, the role of the church in the history of the Armenian people is difficult to overestimate. In the times of the loss of statehood, the church took on the leadership of the country and kept the unity of the people.
It was the church often organized liberation wars, established important diplomatic relations. Opened schools and universities, brought up a national self-consciousness and patriotic spirit in the population.
Having passed through the mountains of the test, surviving continuous pressure on the side of the innocent cruel invaders, the Armenian church did not lose the status of state religion for one day.
Today, the Armenian Apostolic Church unites Armenians living abroad, which is 80% of the total world's Armenian population.
History of Christianity - Briefly - Russian Historical Library
Under the name of Christianity we mean, on the one hand, coming from Jesus Christ The creed, as the saving self-consignment and the mediation of God in the face of Jesus Christ, the elements of human nature leading to the perfection and the perfection of the human nature, and on the other - the perception of this creed of mankind, the relationship of him to God and the interaction of these factors (objective and subjective), the organization of the organization Public religious life.
El Greco. Savior delicious. 1580-1582.
The beginning of christianity
The sampling of these forms was a single, separated ethnographically, but tightly cohesive hard firm in the Redeemer, the spiritual society of Jews and Jewish proles, formed after the descent of the Holy Spirit and the first sermons Apostles in Jerusalem. From here, the gospel teachings of a wide wave bloated for the most part of the Mediterranean countries.
St. Peter According to legend, he founded the church in Antioch, then preached in the regions of Malaya Asia and visited Rome. Saint Pavel He founded the church in some cities of Malaya Asia, on the island of Cyprus, in many cities of Greece and Macedonia. Saint Bartholoma preached in India and Arabia, the Holy Matthew - in Ethiopia, St. Andrey - in Scythia.
From St. Thomas lead their genealogy Persian and Malabar Church; Holy Mark enlightened the Christianity of the Adriatic Sea coast. By moving the Roman legions, trade relations, an indifferent exchange of thoughts and information between Rome and Provinces, travel and preaching the nearest successors and assistants of the Holy Apostles (Timothy, Siluan, Aristarha, Stakhiya, Origen , Panthen, etc.
) Christianity penetrated Gallia, Germany, Spain, Britain, on the North African coast, to Egypt and border countries with him.
Organization of the first Christian communities
At the beginning of the III century, our era, Christian communities existed in all parts of the world famous then. The device and administration of these primitive communities were extremely simple.
The ministers of the Church were elected by the society of believers and were divided into three degrees: the deacons who performed the unavailable spiritual demands and trouble-charts on secular affairs, presbyters, who taught and sacred, depending on the bishops, and bishops used by the highest after the apostles, the rights of the teacher, clerks and the church management.
The gifts received by the apostles from the head of the Church were transferred by them through the ordination of the first bishops, which, in turn, became the continuity distributors of these gifts on other members of the primitive hierarchy.
Persecution of christians
Between the first members of Christianity, the distinguishing features of which were hot faith, true humility and impeccable purity of the morals, no disputes did not occur for the primacy and claims for the championship. Nevertheless, the beginning of the spread of Christianity was encountered with cruel hatred and bloody persecutions.
On the one hand, the Jews were seen in Christians of the decrave from their ancient religion.
On the other hand, thanks to its universal nature, Christianity did not fit in the framework of Roman tolerance, which reported to the state sanction only by national religions, and his mysteriousness inspired the concerns of the Roman government, who made him for the dark and antisherrous superstition.
A number of strange and terrible accusations based on the ever-interpretation of Christian rites and institutions served as a pretext for cruel persecutions, which in Judea reached the highest degree during Herod Agrippe and ceased with the war 67 - 70. In the Roman Empire, they began at Nerone (64 - 68.
), repeated in Domician and Trian and reached the striking atmosphere (249 - 251) and Diocaletian (284 - 305), with Caesarians North (in Italy and Africa) and Maximine (in Egypt and Palestine).
Unusual hardness in the transfer of torment and the touching fate of Christian martyrs attracted many new followers under the banner of the prosecuted teaching - and so "the blood of the martyrs became the seed of faith."
With II century A long series of defensive treatises appeared about the Christian faith, who had the goal to decide it to followers the location of the Roman government and to reflect the accusations, which built by representatives of pagan religion and philosophy.
Between the writers of this direction (apologists) Codrite, Bishop Athens, deserve special attention. TERTULLYAN , Presbyter Carthaginsky, philosopher Yermia, Origen Alexandria other.
In the reign of Konstantin the Great (306 - 337), a number of edicts were published, which guarantees the freedom of confession and granted some benefits to Christians, but the final triumph of Christianity over paganism came only under the successors of Julian apostate (Valentiniane, Grazian, Feodosia I and Justinian).
Yersie and Ecumenical Cathedrals
In addition to the external persecution, the Christian church from the first centuries of its existence was disturbed by the splits and heresses that arose in its medium, those who were speaking in the first century of the Natives, who joined the Moiseeva law to Christian duties; Evionets who denied the divinity of Jesus Christ.
In the second century, Gnostics appeared, preaching the dualism of spirit and matter; Ascetic sect of montanists and monarchian who shared neither the dynamists and modalists. The III century includes Yersie Pavle Samosatsky and Prester Savelia and the east flavor of the Maineev sect, the splits of Novacian and Donatists.
The considerable development of the eares, who revised as the proposal and the approval of Christianity as a dominant religion, led to the convening of the Ecumenical Cathedrals, part of those who have resolved dogmatic issues, part of the rules of church degree. The first in their row was a cathedral, convened in 325.
In Naja about the heresy Arian, in the condemnation of which the dogma of the son of God-Son was approved with the Father's God and published a clear and intelligible symbol of faith. In the 2nd half of the IV century, heresy Patriarch Macedonia has emerged through the consistent development of the Arian Yersie, who denied the divinity of the Holy Spirit, and convened on this occasion in 381. The second universal (Constantinople) Cathedral completed the Nicene symbol five new members.
In 431, in Ephesus, the third universal cathedral, condemned Yerez Nestorian, who were recognized in Jesus Christ only human nature, but in 451, Emperor Markian was forced to convene (4th) Cathedral in Chalkedone, about the enemy's enemy, Evtyo who recognized in Christ only divine nature (monophimitis). Fifth and sixth Ecumenical cathedrals convened in Constantinople, in 553 and 680.
They tried the exposure of monophimita false teachings. In 681, the Trill Cathedral ("Fogy-Six") developed the rules of church governance, served by the main basis of the collections of canonical law - Nomocanon or Korm. In 787, he was convened in Nica's seventh and the last Ecumenical Cathedral, refuted in the first half of the 6th century, the erasya iconoborets, finally eradicated by the Constantinople's Local Cathedral of 842
Fathers of the Church
In close connection with the activities of the Ecumenical Councils, the Creations of Fathers and Teachers of the Church, which by written by the Apostolic Traditions and explaining the true teachings of faith and piety a lot contributed to the preservation of Christianity in primitive purity. Especially beneficial was the activities of the Holy Afanasias of the Great, Vasily of the Great, Grigoria, Theologian, John Zlatoust, Amvrosia, Mediaan, Blessed Jerome, etc.
No less important moral and educational significance also had a monasticism as the implementation of the desire for higher moral perfection, which originated together with the advent of Christianity, but during the first two centuries wearing a character of single mobility and only at the end of the first century weathered mass outlines.
In the IV century, antelin monasticism (Holy Anthony Great) and a hostel monasticism (Holy Pahomi) was founded in Egypt. In the V century, two more types of mobility appeared: the prison, founded by the Holy Simeon, and the scientific of Christ, the most famous and respected representative of whom was St. Andrei.
In the West, monasticism was organized in the 6th century on the eastern pattern of Saint Benedict Nursius, the founder of the Adugenctuary Order of the Benedictine.
Patriarchs and dad
In addition to the emergence of monasses, in the spiritual hierarchy of Christianity, some other changes occurred over time. At the time of the apostles between the bishops, Metropolitans were held more honorable position, i.e. regional bishops.
Between them, in turn, the bishops of metropolitan cities were distinguished, for five of which (Roman, Alexandrian, Antioch, Jerusalem and Constantinople), universal cathedrals recognized the famous identical preferred rights and the common title of patriarchs.
Over time, the spread of Islam, which limited the Dioceses of the Three Oriental Patriarchs, led to a corresponding decrease in their influence.
Constantinople patriarchs were engaged in the struggle with the iconocration; The area of the Roman Patriarchs (Pap) in the meantime expanded on the entire West of Europe, and by virtue of historical conditions, their power received important political importance on which Pope founded their championships in the spiritual hierarchy. To these claims that appeared on the false acts appeared in the IX century (False Decricrals), some dogmatic deviations of the Western Church were joined from the decisions of the Universal Councils.
Split Christianity on Orthodoxy and Catholicism
Since Pope stubbornly refused to recognize these deviations erroneous and challenged the rights of other patriarchs and the Supreme Power of the Universal Councils, in 1054
There was an open and final gap between Pope Lion IX and Constantinople Patriarch Mikhail Kerullaria.
From this time, the wide channel of Christianity is divided into two large streams - the Church of Western or Roman Catholic and the Eastern Church (Greek) or Orthodox. Each of them goes its development, without uniting into a single whole under the general name.
Christianity: Narching and Development
Christianity is one of the largest and most ancient world religions, which has more than 2 billion followers. The main postulates: the initial sinfulness of man, but God left him the possibility of correction and purification in the event of a righteous life and repentance. The sacrifice is obligatory, the first example of which is the victim of the Godhead of Jesus Christ.
Backgrounds of occurrence
In i century BC e. The political position of almost any god progressive formations was extremely unstable: one, conquering others, held a dominant position, and then faced by the third, quickly came into decay.
The most popular theory of Christianity's origin claims: this religion originated in ancient Palestine. Palestine was under the nest of Alien Sense for a long time, then she managed to free themselves and briefly become independent, but in 663 BC. e. Everything has changed again: the Gna Flying (Roman military commander) captured its areas, and Palestine lost freedom. From now on, she officially was part of the entire growing Roman Empire.
The loss of independence gave rise to discontent among all the layers of the population, but it was especially difficult for the most disadvantaged. The feeling of injustice of what is happening, the local population dreamed of returning the previous orders.
So the soil was prepared for the emergence of a new creed, which promised to give everyone to his merit. Christianity did not arise in itself: it caused Judaism "in Lona". The minds of people were already prepared for the idea of fair retaliation, which is waiting for anyone living on earth after death. Already existed a Old Testament tradition.
An additional role in the emergence of the new creed was played by the works of ancient Greek philosophers, especially the Seneki. They were an important place to occupy the thoughts about repentance, about the original sinfulness of all people, about the fact that it is necessary to conquer fate.
Stages of the formation of Christian creed
You can distinguish several stages traveled by Christianity until it gained a modern, acquaintance to us.
Here they are:
- The origin and stage of relevant eschatology.
- Period of fixture.
- Period of struggle for domination.
- The period of the universal cathedrals.
- Separation of the Church on the 2 largest branches: Catholicism and Orthodoxy.
- Further development and distribution to the world.
Stage of relevant eschatology
This stage began in the second half of I century. AD At this time, there was not yet a clear allocation of Christianity from Judaism. In i century AD Jesus Christ was born - the most mysterious and causing many disputes from both theologists and historians have a person in all Christian teachings. It is believed that he was born in Bethlehem. His mother was chosen by God in order to give the world of man who had to bring himself sacrificing for the savings of mankind in sins.
At this time, the first followers of the new teaching were persecuted and persecuted, they were executed, all who were connected with them, threw in prisons or sent. At this stage, the first Christians were expected to arrive the Savior literally at any moment.
Being most often representatives of the poorest classes, they, feeling oppressed, enslavement and without seeing the release of the situation, laid their hopes for the fact that the Messiah will come, and the oppressors will make merit, the oppressed will receive a fair reward.
At this time, there was no strict hierarchy, Christians united into communities. Deacon were prescribed to execute technical duties. Bishops were chosen to observe the life of the community.
Period of fixture
The new religion turned out to be a lively, attempts to destroy it to destroy her followers physically only attracted more and more supporters. As a result, KI II. n. e. The era of fixtures begins.
Exhibited by Christians of light-use did not happen, but also the increase in the neb to the sensation of perfect hopelessness also did not occur. The era of relative stability occurred.
The new teachings began to be gradually the representatives of more well-coherent population layers became gradually joined.
The situation remains difficult, because representatives of the highest power relate to Christianity in different ways: during the reign of some Christians living easier, persecution cease, others still have a new religion. Since the new religion needs support for strengthening positions, it willingly takes rich and influential people into their adepts. Centers of Christianity appear in different fields:
Gradually, the old Old Testament traditions of Judaism are replaced by new:
- Instead of circumcision, baptism is introduced;
- Instead of the former Easter now celebrate a new one (but with the old name);
- Festive Saturdays replace Sunday.
Christianity begins to strengthen its position.
The period of struggle for domination
With iii vb. There is a long period of struggle for the occupation of the dominant positions of Christian creed in the Roman Empire. The critical point was the adoption by Emperor Konstantin in 311 of the Milan Edicta, who not only recognized all rights for Christianity (as long as, however, on a par with paganism), but also took Christians to protect the state.
Gradually, a new religion becomes dominant. By the end of the IV century, it applies throughout the vast territory of the Roman Empire.
The period of the Universal Council
From the very beginning of the development of Christianity in it, as in any belief, many "parallel flows", or heresy appeared. Thus, noredes were distinguished (Moiseev's compliance with Christians), Evionets (who denied the Divine Origin of Christ), Gnostics (they equalized "in the rights" spirit and matter).
Differences in views, the lack of clearly defined dogmas led to awareness of the need to discuss the current situation and to develop a single position on global issues with which the believer and the management composition had to constantly face. In the period from IV to the VIII centuries. 7 universal councils were convened. They were established during the discussion of certain dogmas, mandatory to comply with all the adepts of religion, issues of compliance with church degree.
In 787, the last universal cathedral took place.
At this time, the church hierarchy occurs, the process of organizing church communities in clear structures begins, where the power of each substain level is unconditional above the downstream. The title of "Patriarch" appears. There is an institute of monasses.
Separation of the Church: Catholicism and Orthodoxy
Closer to the beginning of the XI century. All the sharp are political contradictions in the ranks of the jeques of Christianity. As a result, in 1054 there was a split between Pope Lion IX Patriarch Mikhail Kerullaria. The church was divided by the supporters of both on Roman Catholic (Western) and Orthodox (Eastern).
Development of Christianity and distribution to the world
Christianity is becoming more and more strong positions, crowding out various beliefs on the European continent. With missionaries, it also applies to Asia and Africa.
Today it is the largest world religion, which has more than 2.3 billion adherents throughout the world.
During the existence, Christian treachery, traveling on the planet, has undergone various changes, adapting to the peculiarities of the population of that edge where it turned out. Today, 3 most powerful branches are allocated in Christianity. In addition to Orthodoxy and Catholicism, this is Protestantism.
|Distinctive features||Release (base basics) Scripture. Head of the Church - Roman Dad. Vera in purgatory.||Representatives are equal to the domestic and new covenants, believe in unshakable trinity: Christ is God, Spirit and man. Mandatory confession, communion||Representatives of the teachings reject the item on purgatory. An important postulate is the equality of all believers. Each believer is a priest for himself. The maximum abbreviated number of church attributes, luxury.|
|Sphere of distribution||Mexico, South and Central America, Cuba||Serbia, Montenegro, Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, Macedonia||United Kingdom, Bulgaria, Brazil|
The value of christianity
Now almost every country of the world has at least one Christian community. During its formation, Christianity performed the role of the Organizer of all oppressed, contributed to the elimination of disabilities (since he detected polytheism).
Subsequently, religion was delivered to the service of the state: with the help of the Christian creed, which promised retribution outside of the earthly life, managed to keep the huge unstable folk masses under the control, in whose environments often flared out due to poverty and hunger.
Christianity played the role of a unifying factor, and in addition, in many ways promoted spiritual development. It was in the monasteries that the first books appeared, a diploma training began.
In our time, Christianity, although officially in many countries is separated from the state, actually continues to play the role of political support of power. The second function is the psychological support of believers, approval of the principles of humanism. Probably, over time, this feature will be decisive and will be released.
Early Christianity. lesson. Universal History Grade 10
In i century AD In Israel, in Judaism, Christianity arose. New religious teachings began to spread and acquire the popularity among the peoples of the Roman Empire (Greeks, Egyptians, Syrians, Romans). The founder of Christian communities in Rome and Antioch is considered the apostle Peter, in Alexandria - the Apostle Mark.
Already to the II century. Christianity has become one of the most common religions in the empire.
284-305 - The Board of the Emperor Diocletian. Conducts persecution of Christians.
306-337 - The Board of Emperor Constantine.
313 - Konstantin takes Milan Edict. Edict approves the equality of Christianity with other religions of the Empire. The era of persecution of Christianity ends.
325 - Nicene Cathedral, on which the symbol of faith was formulated (a summary of Christian truths). Since that time, the Christianity is the patronage, and the old religion is deprived of state support.
330 - The foundation of Constantinople, which becomes one of the centers of Christianity.
Konstantin introduces the Christian calendar.
360-363 - The Board of Julian Apostate, who did not recognize Christianity.
In the second half of the IV century. Begins the great relocation of peoples).
380 - Christianity becomes a mandatory religion for all the inhabitants of the Empire.
395 - separation of the Roman state to the Western Roman Empire with the capital in Ravenna and the eastern Roman Empire with the capital in Constantinople.
410 - Taking Rome Gotami. The city was looted, but returned to the emperor. Goths left Rome and assieved in Gaul.
451 - IV Ecumenical Cathedral. Representatives of the eastern part of Christianity expressed disagreement with the supremacy of Pope Roman. The beginning of the contradictions of Western and Eastern (Catholic and Orthodox) churches that will lead to a split in 1054.
451 - Battle in the catalun fields. Romans in the Union with German tribes defeated the Gunnov tribes
455 - Vandals looted Rome.
476 - Downtime Romula Augustu. Western Roman Empire Pala.
Diocletian - Roman emperor.
Konstantin I Great - the Roman emperor, supported Christianity, founded Constantinople.
Romulus Augustus - the last Roman emperor, overthrown by the commander of one of the German divisions of the Roman army by the Odakrom.
476 has become not only the member of the deployment of the last Roman emperor, but also the year of completing the history of the Western Roman Empire, the end of the ancient history and the beginning of the history of the Middle Ages. (See the lesson "Introductory lesson. What is the Middle Ages").
The disappeared structures of the Empire largely replaced the Roman church, which provided it with important political importance over the Middle Ages.
In this lesson, we will talk about early Christianity and the role that it has played in the history of Roman civilization. The late period of development of the Roman Empire will also be considered and how she ceased to exist.
Christianity had an influence on the Roman Empire since the I century n. e. It is at this time Christianity arises as a separate religion, and not as a direction or sect within Judaism.
Christianity was seriously different from those religions that were common in both the East East and in the Greek-Roman world. The basis of Christianity is the doctrine of the equality of people among themselves and before the gods. In this situation there was no difference between Mr. and the slave, representatives of different ethnic groups, different nationalities. That is why Christianity quickly spread from the territories of the Middle East to the Earth, which was part of the Rome state.
So popular religion could not not cause concerns from the Roman emperors. Many of them start persecution of christians . For the first time, such persecutions were held in Rome in 64 N. e. During the reign of the emperor Nero (Fig. 1) . Later emperors also treated Christianity ambiguously.
Christianity with his ideas of equality did not meet the general-amperist principles and the principle of the fact that the Roman emperor is higher than any subject. This was precisely the hidden nature of the Christian religion first.
This period is sometimes called Catacomble When the Christian communities were forced to hide from the public and hold their meetings in those places where they could not be caught by the ruffles of Roman troops. However, this did not bother Christianity to spread.
Religion of Greece
When the Apostle Paul came with the sermon to the Allennsky lands, among other man-made structures, he saw the altar of the unknown god. Speaking in the Areopague, God's Messenger said: This is this Chatty, but as long as God unknown to you, I am preaching.
Appeal to the Christianity of the people who has grown up the cult of the Idolian gods and who left the world a huge cultural pagan heritage, is a rare case in history when the world's light is consecrated by the cultural and mostly educated people.
Greece is the Orthodox country in its culture, history, religious choice. Modern Greeks consider themselves heirs to the traditions of Christian Byzantium. 98% of the population of the country - orthodox Christians.
Greek (officially - eldelle) Orthodox church is one of the most influential and third in the number of believers in the Orthodox world. And Greece is the only country in which Orthodoxy is enshrined in the Constitution as a state religion.
The church in Greek society plays an important role, and faith is an integral part of the culture.
Baptism in this country is considered mandatory. Marriage is not recognized by the state if he is not wedd. Religious holidays are elevated to the rank of state. A birthday for the Greek - an event is less important than the name day. Professional holidays are celebrated on the day of memory of the saints of patrons of professions.
As approved by Orthodoxy in the Ellen lands
Christianity in Greece arose mainly by the efforts of the Pavl's Bar Apostle. For many years, the Holy Movieman dealt with the preaching of the faith of Christ among the Gentiles. Those in the matter of the queue, with interest they perceived these sermons.
In the places of Apostolic Labor, Paul remained small Christian communities, which eventually became the basis for the Christianization of the entire European pagan world. In Ephesus, and the Apostle John theologian and his student of the Holy Prokoki worked on Patmos.
In the case of educating the pagan people, the Saints Mark and Varnaba decent contribution. The revelation of John the Bogoslov was written on Patmos.
Almost three hundred years of Christians of Greece were oppressed. Periods of cruel persecutions were replaced by short time of the clutch. And only with the emergence of the Byzantine Empire, the approval of the Christian faith on the Greek Earth began. Christianity has become a government religion. The majestic temples were built throughout the Empire, monastic monastery were established. Theological science developed, the organizational structure of the Christian church was determined and approved.
Thanks to the works and efforts of the holy fathers of the first centuries of Christianity, a religion that has become the basis for the Greeks of life, was able to resist the difficult period of Ottoman rule. Thanks to the church, the Greeks have been preserved as a people. They were able to save the tongue, traditions, cultural heritage.
Greek land presented the world of many saints. Among them, St. Gregory Palama, the Great Martyr Dimitri Solunsky, Holy Paraskeva Martyr, Saint Netary Eginsky. Many devotees, glorified in the face of the saints, held their lives in Athos.
Holy Mount Athos - Live Byzantium
Athos is particularly distorted throughout the Orthodox world place. This Holy Mountain - the Earth's Forthwest of the Blessed Virgin Mary. Everything, even the air and stones, satisfied with the grace of the Holy Spirit. There is no more space on Earth, where the Byzantine tradition is preserved in such purity, as in Athos. This place is a prayer feat of thousands of Orthodox devotees, there is no prayer for a minute.
According to legend, together with the apostle John, the Mother of God sailed into Cyprus to visit the clogs of the throatricant, who by that time was already a bishop Cretan. But a storm suddenly rose and treated the ship to the shore, to the foot of Athos. Local residents warmly met the Holy Guest. She blessed this place, calling him her lot. And she promised to take care of the century and apply for him before his son. And also warned that no woman can dare to step on Mount Athos.
It must be said that not only in Athos, but in many other Greek monasteries, the ancient Byzantine rule is observed about the ban on entry into men's monasteries and, on the contrary, with the exception of people of spiritual san. The preservation of this rule on Athos was one of the conditions put forward by Greece, when the country is published in the European Union. Attempts by some EU managers to remove this prohibition with success were not crowned due to the administrative status of the monastic republic.
Administratively holy mountain is an autonomous self-governing community of 20 Orthodox abode. Central Cathedral Organ of the Monastic Republic is a sacred movie. The authorized charter of the Holy Mountain has the power of state law. The status of Athos is enshrined by the Constitution of Greece. Civil power on the Holy Mountain represents the governor. His powers - control over compliance with civil law.
Differences of Greek Orthodoxy from Russian
Due to the fact that once the Greeks recognized the Christianity of the true religion, Russian lands were also Christianized. Holy Enlighteners of Slavs Equal-Apostles Brothers Kirill and Methodius by origin were Greeks. Representatives of this people became the first hierarchs of the Christian Church in Russia. In the Russian Church with the Greek Unified Vera. But there are also small differences in rites and traditions. Here is some of them:
- Worship in the Greeks is shorter than in the Russian Church. It is distinguished by simplicity.
- The right of confession is only among Hieromonakhov received this blessing. To the confessor to confession a person comes at any time, regardless of whether the service at this moment is in the temple. In the framework of liturgia, confession is not sick.
V. Lebedev, A. Prilutsky, V. Viktorov
7.1. The origin of Christianity. The main stages of the formation
Christianity arises in the territory of the Roman Empire at the beginning of a new era, which is counted from the estimated date of birth of Christ. Prerequisites for its occurrence, in addition to the subjective, the systemic crisis of the lateantic culture and decline of the State Roman religion was filled with either exotic polytetic cults of other nations included in the empire or philosophical systems, especially Platonovsky-Neoplatonic Type, who were actually the status of religion. A prominent part of the population has moved to liberalness and purely external religiosity.
In addition to a purely theological explanation (Christianity as a result of the revelation of God, manifested in God Jesus Christ), Among the prerequisites of the appearance of Christianity were indicated:
- the increase in crisis phenomena in the Roman Empire, including the increasing bundle of society and the growing of social and other types of alienation;
- Further development of the Jewish religion due to internal laws;
- Personal factor in the form of activities of Jesus.
Different researchers tend to give priority to different prerequisites or combine them.
Hakery with Judaism occurred on a fundamental question: to consider whether Jesus Messiah. It is those who recognized him by the status of the Messiah Christ, anointed, and received the name of Christians. Initially, they did not stand out completely from the environment of adherents of the former religion, in particular, continued to visit synagoal worships (this phenomenon is referred to as Jewochriding), comply with a number of traditional ritual regulations, but soon the communities were aligned.
The question of the historical personality of Jesus gave rise to a lot of disputes (especially if we consider that the books of the New Testament were usually not considered as full historical sources). Science came to the conclusion that there are no reason to doubt it, since in addition to the Gospels there are a number of clearly authentic documents in which events from the life of Jesus are mentioned. The question of divinity is not a matter of science in a typical understanding of her, and the faith and religious beliefs of the person and groups of people.
The first centuries of Christianity on the territory of the Roman Empire were marked by persecution, as it was considered a suspicious religion, and its adherents are unrealized subjects. So, in particular, the persecution of Christians under the emperors Nerno, Domitian, Diocletian, Dection, Valerian. This was due to the monotheistic nature of Christianity and the desire to not advertise the liturgical actions, so as not to face them before the uninitiated, equally, as well as with the desire to avoid some manifestations of the public life of that time, to avoid what is directly connected with pagan cults. The distrust of state power to the Jews monotheists was naturally moved to Christians. All this gave rise to slanderous fabrications, which became pretexts for oppression. Some repressions were local in nature, but differed perverted cruelty.
Gradually, the situation changes, the attitude of power to Christians becomes more benevolent until finally Konstantin I Milan Edict (decree) does not legalize Christianity as an equal religion. Subsequently, the church proclaimed the emperor Saints. This act, according to most historians, appeared in 313.
The consequences of changing the status of Christianity were different. So, Christian theologians Origen Alexandria (185? -254?) Noted that it quickly became culturally prestigious, the number of people who wanted to join it were sharply increased, including for extraneal reasons, such as career. The latter entailed a certain cooling of the intense spiritual life, which was characteristic of the earlier period of life of the communities. The reaction to this was the growth of shelving monastics, consisting of people who choose a strict path to achieve salvation.
State religion Christianity has become in 380 under the emperor Feodosia I. (346-395). Relationships with state power were built ambiguously, since she not only automatically took over the protection of the interests of the Church (including in countries where she was in an obvious minority), but also got the opportunity to penetrate into her affairs. Examples are numerous: the emperors convened some church cathedrals, influenced the appointments of the highest clergy, tried to make definitions on theological issues, repeatedly supported the views convicted by the church (the movement of opponents of Icons in Byzantium VIII-IX centuries. Was supported by the imperial power). By the Byzantine emperors there was a tendency to substantiate their belonging to the younger clergy.
As a result, there were two main models of the relationship of secular and church authorities.
Western envisaged the control of the church over the secular power, which was expressed in the ritual of coronation committed with the sanction of the highest church power (when coronation, the monarch should not be located above the church throne). Dad reserved the right to deploy the ruler, which abusing the authorities, with the liberation of subjects from duties to maintain loyalty or imposition of other church punishments. In addition, the dads themselves had some volume of secular power, which was expressed in the emergence in the VIII century. Theocratic state - the papal region.
Eastern allowed a wide penetration of the state into church cases with a number of functions and rights to it, which, in fact, should not belong to him. Thus, some rescripts of monarchs directly solved the issues of church organization and theology and were carried out without approval by the Church (this is how Peter I canceled the Patriarchhood in Russia and replaced him with a collegial synod, completely inorganized for Orthodox Church, and not provided for by the church right of the Orthodox Church).
An ambiguous is such an institution as the Inquisition, in fact in various forms and under different names, which was present in all confessions that had state status. In the strict sense of the Inquisition, a special judicial body organized by the Catholic Church and has been investigating and the qualifications of crimes against faith and those that could be equal to them for several centuries. Its solution was the nature of qualifications, i.e. She was not the last link of the legal chain.
On the one hand, the state always punished religious crimes on a par with secular, and often severely. At the same time, the inquisition processes were isolated for a more careful consideration of those crimes, where the competences of ordinary vessels lacked (cases of witchcraft, the subtlety of evading the truths of faith). The qualifications of the nature and severity of crimes were unequal, the excuse was not rare. On the other hand, the Church itself was not alien to the thought that the state should assist in the fight against heretics, especially when they became a socially dangerous force (like Albaigs in France in the XII-XIV centuries, which applied terror), as it concerns the interests of the state itself . Such views expressed, for example, sv. Joseph Voltsky (Volokolamsky) (Oc. 1439-1515), a supporter of the close interaction of the church and the state. Here the church made a difficult legal and moral choice.
Reformation, refusing a typical western model, in most cases subordinate the church to the control of secular power, transferring the clergy (partially, in fact, or completely) to the position of officials. This prepared the next step - the separation of the Church from the state, consistently first implemented by the French revolution of 1789 (it was not by chance that Pope VI noted that revolutionary slogans "Freedom. Equality. Brotherhood" have a reformal origin).
During the first millennium of Christian history, there was a design of the most important challenges relating primarily to the exercise on the Holy Trinity and the nature of Christ. The main types of christian worship (liturgy) were clearly imposed.
In 1054, Christianity lost unity. The reason was the conflict of two large and influential church districts associated with the disputes about the Championship - Constantinople and Roman Patriarchates (such a major district, headed by patriarchs, usually they have a very ancient origin, in the I thousands there were five). Patriarch Konstantinople Mikhail Kerullary (1005? -1059) accused Western Christians in retreats and heresa, in particular, concerned with ritual differences that have already existed many centuries (for example, committing a liturgy on fresh bread, and not on a boom). Raised and the question of FilioQue, Concerning the attitude of the Holy Spirit to two other persons of the Holy Trinity. Legs (ambassadors) Pope Lion ix (1049-1054) Proclaimed Redemption of Kerullaria, the latter announced the same to the Pope. Attempts to eliminate the conflict of success did not have.
There were two branches of Christianity: Eastern, called name Orthodox , and western, Catholic (These names were in use and before separation, but then clearly correlated with two branches). Rus, who adopted officially Christianity in 988, before the division, was in the Orthodoxy Area. Western Europe entered the Catholic Areal.
The differences between them can be described as follows.
The Catholic Church is centralized, Dad is considered to be a visible head of the church and the successor of the Barmer Apostle Peter, Having received a special position from Christ himself (the invisible chapter - Christ himself). The recognition of his power is the criterion of stay in the church. In the XIX century The doctrine was finalized that the dad at the time of the official speech on the affairs of faith and morality, having unconditional attitude towards all Christians, enjoys as the successor of the Petr's pre-emergency apostle. About error in everything and especially about personal sinlessness here and speech does not go. Orthodoxy is inclined to consider the apostle Peter Rambari "on honor", and behind the dad, Bishop of Rome, to recognize at best of the "honor championship".
In Catholicism, there is a title of cardinal, but this is not a special stage of the hierarchy, but rather an honorary position that gives the right to choose dad. Cardinal can be the younger cleir, although this practice is currently left.
Gradually, the most rational procedure for choosing Pope has been developed - the voting of the board (assembly) of Cardinals at a closed meeting - Conclusion. Elected can be any Catholic, but it is practically chosen from among the cardinals themselves. To gain the papal status of sufficiently free consent with the result of the election. The official registry contains the names of 263 dads, from St. Apostle Peter T. Benedict XVI. (since 2005).
Catholicism clarified the doctrine of the state of the Holy Spirit from the Father, indicating that it comes from his father and son (Lat. Filioque - And from the Son). Orthodoxy emphasizes the discharge of the spirit only from the Father (some church authorities consider this question to theologian - see paragraph 2.6).
Catholics were proclaimed as dogmas faith Immaculate conception of the Virgin Mary (according to which she was in anticipation of the birth of Christ, the grace was preserved from the action of original sin), the capture of the Virgin on the sky at the time of her death (similar to the teachings of the Orthodox Church, in honor of which the Virgin Assumption is established) And already mentioned dogma on the error of the official papal judgment.
The liturgical differences are noticeable and are considered major, but historically they have formed before separation. This concerns, in particular, a number of prayers in worship services, details of the commission of sacraments, use in the Catholic Church of the body, the differences in some details and design of liturgical clothes, use in the Latin Catholicism as a liturgical, lack of iconostasis, when the altar is separated from the main part only by a low partition . In Catholic temples, along with icons, a sacred sculpture is also used. There are some differences in church right in the interpretation of a number of issues.
The Catholic and Orthodox Church after the separation recognized a number of new saints, so that their calendar is not fully coincided, but the main holidays are the same. In addition, in the XVI century. At the initiative of Pope, a transition to a new, Gregory calendar was made (named by the name of this dad), which seemed more perfect.
In the XVI century A new branch of Christianity appears - Protestantism, He who has serious differences from both Orthodoxy and Catholicism. The latter are referred to in religious scientists with orthodox or traditional Christianity, although these terms are not recognized by everyone quite successful. Further, in the presentation of the creed and the ritual side, we will focus on their orthodox understanding, the peculiarities of the Protestant vision will be said separately.
Catholicism has attempted reunification with the Christians of the East, including Orthodox. This project is known as union (an association). She assumed reunion on the terms of making controversial dogmas in the Catholic interpretation, including submission to the dad, with the preservation of traditional eastern worship without changes, as well as all church-legal and organizational features.
The project of UII with Orthodoxy was proposed on the Ferraro-Florentine Universal Council (XV century), he even signed Russian Metropolitan Isidore (? -1463). The Brest (XVI century) and Mukachevsko-Uzhgorod Uania (1646), named at their place of their conclusion, were large acts of Ulya in Slavic lands. It was also concluded with the Armenian Church, who was addressed in 1439. The Unitary Catholics received the official name of the Catholics of the Eastern Rite, and the united Orthodox - Greek Catholics. They enjoy equal rights with "habitual Catholics", i.e. Roman Catholics.
The structure of modern Christianity looks like this (Fig. 20).
Fig. twenty. Structure of modern Christianity
In 988, under the Kiev Prince Vladimir Svyatoslavich (in the baptism of the Greek name Vasily; the initial Slavic name was "legalized" after proclaiming the prince of Saints with the title "Equal-Apostles", i.e. the feat of the feat of the Apostolic) is the baptism of Rus (baptism Prince and his approximate, baptism of Kiev). Before that, Christians in Russia were, but the state status did not have a religion. After this event begins the process Christianization - the spread of religion on the extensive territory and its penetration into culture, it lasts about 300 years.
To a large extent, due to insufficient training, part of the population took place not only the open resistance of the new religion, but also the appearance Double - the secret commitment to paganism with the external adoption of Christianity, and Syncretism - Mixing Christian and pagan beliefs and rituals. Despite the struggle of the church with these phenomena, they turned out to be persistent, elements of syncretism exist and now, especially in the national faith environment.
Initially, the Russian church was only the province of a large Constantinople Patriarchate, from where the clergy was called directly, but the connection with Constantinople became weaker, sometimes even the highest clergy occupied the department without the official consent of the Constantinople Patriarch. As a result, it prepared the separation of the Russian Church and the acquisition of church-legal independence, which corresponded to the requests of the state that enhances their positions.
Christianization of Russia had a huge cultural impact on all spheres of life, formed as a result of the domestic culture precisely in her appearance, which for us is familiar and natural. This allowed the state to become quite equal in the family of other peoples who have already joined the "Christian family" or preparing it.
Many church figures, for example, Metropolitan of Kiev Illarion. (XI century), sv. Kirill Turgovsky (XII century), sv. Feodosius Pechersky (XI century), one of the founders of Russian monastics, sv. Sergius of Radonezh (XIV century), became the largest cultural figures of our Fatherland. Own church art was formed, which had its own stylistic differences from the art of other countries that were in the area of Eastern Orthodox Christianity, for example, from Greco-Byzantine Orthodoxy.
An ambiguously solved religious problem is the origin and essence of Gnosticism (from Greek. Gnosos. - Knowledge, Gnostos. - Cognitive). This is a set of exercises that existed during the first millennium of a new era having a Middle Eastern origin. Under Gnosticism in the strict meaning of words, the teachings of the I-II centuries are understood by Christianity and convicted as heretical.
Approval of the existence of decorated Gnostic beliefs in the pre-Christian period is not all, but the presence of gnostic type beliefs, predecessors of developed Gnosticism, undoubtedly. The texts of the Gnostics themselves at our disposal are a bit, partially about their views, we can judge the surviving controversy with them, based on which it can be assumed that Gnosticism was considered as a very serious danger to the church.
Despite the variety of areas, Gnostic teachings contain common features.
Characteristic of a strict esoteric unit involving
availability of genuine teaching (knowledge Gnosis ) Only for the selected.
There are always special ideas about the attitude of God and
matched material world. Here, Gnosticism is divided into two basic options, ascending, however, to a single scheme - the difference is to a greater degree in emphasis and predominance of certain influences, since syncretism is generally characteristic of Gnosticism.
According to the first, between God and the material world lies the abyss so much that the world should be considered rejected from God and completely evil and fallen. This consistent is expressed in the presentation of the presence of two creators - a good, some hidden God, and the evil - Demiurga, created the world. The difference with the creed of orthodox Christianity is that the world is not evil as a result of the fall, but in the essence of its own, according to the conception, initially, is incompatible with the biblical idea of the goodness and wisdom of the Creator and the uniqueness of the creator beginning. Such matter becomes worthy, in essence, only extermination and destruction (from here, extreme and cruel asceticism, practiced by a number of movements of the Gnostic type, directed precisely on cleansing, but rather to destroy the material, in particular bodily, beginning). It is possible to overcome evil only by completely overcoming the matter. It is not by chance that in Gnostic circles, the texts of the Old Testament were perceived as belonging to the acts of an evil demiurge (for example, Markionites ).
The second option is more important to the neoplatonic picture of the world and teaches the presence of a large number of transitional entities - from the primary ideal beginning to the creature, material world. At the same time, the idea of creation is denied or erased, the doctrine of Emanation (Platonovsky type), when spiritual entities do not make each other, and rather generate one other. The new is formed, as if expired from another.
Such a look leads to the pantheist vision of the world and erasing the boundaries between the creator and the Creator. As a result, it creates prerequisites for the subsequent recognition of the animation of all material creation by the highest intangible start and the presence of some material principle in God itself, as they are separated by a non-clear boundary, but an indefinite chain of intermediate entities.
In the presentation of Gnobs, the transfer of these entities was transformed into long "pedigree lists."
An important place is occupied Sofia , in the fault of which the harmony of the world and was broken. In different versions of Gnostic myths, it can be both female and male beginnings. Both options do not exclude each other at all, since Gnosticism assumes that evil essence can disappear from the good, but it is not capable of exist independently.
The material world is understood as unconditional evil that fell from the perfect intangible world. However, thanks to the intervention of this world, a person appears (Adam - it is understood in Gnostic anthropology not as associated with the material world, but as a seeming free from him, he does not belong). The task of liberation from matter and return to the ideal state, which was carried out by Christ. It naturally led to the denial of the reality of the bodily incarnation of Christ (and therefore recognition of the ghost of his body, denial that he had human nature, the reality of suffering and death, which flows and the denial of the redemption victim), and to the recognition of the body certainly evil material principles (and not just a damaged sin).
The world created by the evil beginning, not worthy of salvation and restoration, you can only break out, overcoming it, in particular to get rid of the corporal shell. Salvation is understood not as reached through the redemptive sacrifice of the embodied God, but as the intellectual knowledge of truth, i.e. Gnostic teaching than the saving path is achieved. Rejecting the church hierarchy, Gnostics created their own, with a very hard discipline. Of the Gnostic circles there were apocryphal, rejected by the Church of the Gospel, set out the mission of Christ in the Gnostic Key (for example, Gospel from Foma).
The question of the origin of Gnosticism is clear not to the end. Some monuments of Gnostic literature do not contain Christian motives at all, which gives reason to talk about him as a separate religion. There are also assumptions about the influence of Iranian beliefs and, most often, antique philosophy and antique religiosity. The latter in general cannot be denyed, since there is analogies with the philosophy of neoplatonism, and in addition, the dislike of Gnostics to the Jewish picture of the world is characterized (reminding the dismissive attitude of the Greco-Roman religion to Judaism) and the desire to create a version of Christianity, completely "purified from the Old Testament elements." The final decision of the issue is difficult to limit the base of sources, part of them was introduced into the scientific circulation only in the XX century.
The main representatives of early Gnosticism (his Christian branch) are considered Simon Volkhv , Markion (OK 85-160), Vasilid. (mind 140), Valentine (II century), Karpokrat (II century). Information about them is not very small. Most often, the directions of Gnosticism are called their names. The famous fighter with Gnosticism was St. Irina Lyonsky (II century).
Early Gnosticism, repulsed in his teaching from Christianity and half anclaring with him completes its history in II century., But Gnostic sentiment continue to exist and repeatedly revived in the future. A kind of continuation of Gnostic ideas were Manichaeism, Movement Pavlikian (Viii - x centuries), Catarov (Albigians) XII-XIV centuries, Bulgarian Bogomilov (X in.), A number of other heresies, including and distributed in Russia (the question of the origin of these sects - they originated independently or as a result of the transfer of teachings by representatives of the same Bogomility, not yet decided).
Manichee (named Founder - Mani) appears in the III century. In the Middle East, being a compound of gnostic interpretation of Christianity, Zoroastrianism and Buddhism. It assumes the strict dualism of God and matter in the struggle. In this struggle on the side of God stands Mother of life Creating and first ahead. Hard criticism of the manikenism was subjected to Augustine.
A peculiar analogue of gnosticism is available in a number of Kabbalah teachings. The passion for gnostic ideas is undoubtedly noticeable in various kinds of esoteric movements, including esoteric hobbies of the Renaissance, which is looking for, in accordance with its elite installations, a special secret exercise intended for chosen.
There are gnostic sentiment in a number of authors, somewhat conditionally referred to Mystics (Ya. Bem, F. Baader, Maister Echart. (1260? -1328?)) What are the church condemnation, for example, as a sophisticated mystical pantheism.
The later evolution of gnostic ideas meant the shift of emphs with the transition from the first of the above-mentioned exercises to the second. Actual and now concepts appear. Christian gnosis и Christian esoterism, According to which the true essence of Christianity is esoteric teaching and is available only to a little, and all "historical Christianity" is a mixture of ignorance and purposeful deception from the authors of the books of the New Testament, Christian theologian, church hierarchy, etc. Such late variants of Gnosticism can be consecrated Neogognosticism Although this term is quite vague.
In the XX century The question of Gnosticism has become relevant due to disputes about Sofia. There is a connection with Gnostic ideas about Sofia-ahamot (in different gnostic texts, it can wear different names), the next zone (zones - entities formed at the next level of emanations and included in the overall hierarchy of such entities), which, spent in pride and wish to be equal to God, generates an evil demiurge, creating a material world. On the one hand, they were provoked by Imuslavl, on the other hand, a number of Russian religious philosophers who developed the doctrine of Sofia - the wisdom of God (at the same time, they often were at the same time and impregnated by imaging). These are primarily V. S. Soloviev (1853-1900), founder Sophiological philosophy, and about. S. N. Bulgakov. N. A. Berdyaev did not hide that Gnostic sentiment in his philosophy takes not the last place. In their philosophy, they are noticeable in one degree or another influence of neoplatonists, whose philosophy is relatively related to Gnosticism, Kabbalay, mentioned above mystics.
Later by the largest representative of Sofiology and Imparevia, who introduced them to his philosophical system, was A. F. Losev. Sofia in his sense appeared in the Christian interpretation and could be interpreted as the perfect premandment of God, followed by the creation of the rest of the world, as a certain intermediate instance, which is neither the Creator, or creation, through which the act of creation was committed, as the wisdom of God, present in the world, As the female beginning of the world (and even the feminine began in God), like all the creation, seeking to return to the Creator. There were also attempts to identify Sofia with the Virgin, Christ, the Church and even declare her "the fourth hatching of the Trinity." It insistently emphasized that the material world is a carrier of a special divine start, which created the prerequisites for its deification and the pantheistic interpretation of the whole picture of the world. A. F. Losev allowed the idea that Matter was even in God.
In addition to condemnation, Impare Church has criticized and condemnation with sophiology in the face primarily S. N. Bulgakov. Supporters of Sofiology themselves refused to recognize justice accusations. However, it is characteristic that such a representative of the philosophical tradition, ascending to V. S. Solovyov, as S. L. Frank, refused to teach about Sofia. Sophiological disputes led to the exacerbation of the relations of the Church and part of the religious intelligentsia (the search for mutual understanding and restoring unity became active within foreigner Silver Age), since it became an impression that became sustained that the latter is unable to adopt orthodox teachings and seeks only to controversial and even the heretical variants of Christianity.
Nowadays, gnostic elements are strong in the philosophy of spaceship (ascending to ideas and works Η. F. Fedorova (1829-1903)), the individual directions of which continue the traditions of sophilors and designate themselves as definitely relate to Orthodoxy and have no essential differences from it. The actual deification of the cosmos really resembles the erase of the borders of the Creator and Creation, which is characteristic of the second variant of Gnostic teachings. The cosmist moods are sometimes turning into pantheism and "spiritual materialism", at the same time existing as peculous esoteric schools.
7.2. Sacred texts in Christianity.
7.2.1. Exegetics and hermenevics
The Holy Book of Christians is Bible, dividing into two parts - Old и New covenants. The first is the preparation of the second. The New Testament speaks of the Epoch, which began with the conception and birth of Christ. Next, the text is divided into smaller parts - books.
The Bible is considered a corroded, but not dictated by writing it literally. The authors lived at different times and texts reflect the features of their personality. In addition, the culture of the time when they were created, did not have pronounced ideas about copyright and the latter was often not fixed. It could be established later without clarifying the identity of writing when the names of the name could be, the text could be assigned to a more authoritative face. Finally, the texts written by different people could be combined when combining smaller text fragments.
The church distinguishes the purely human aspect of the authorship and the aspect of the divine, independent of the person written. Texts officially included in the Bible make up canon. His definition is the privilege of the church. A lot of texts claimed to inclusion in the Bible was dropped. They're called apocrypha (discarded books). Some of them are preserved as delicate, part is recognized as heretical and harmful.
All books of the New Testament were written within the I century., But the canon finally developed to V c. And it includes 27 books. The composition of the Old Testament varies in different Christian confessions primarily because of the "second-bank" books made there later (these are books that do not have a reliable original in Hebrew). The church recognized that it may not follow the absolutely accurate composition of the Jewish canon of the Holy Scriptures, since it has its own divine power to determine it. Catholicism is recognized in 45 books, in Orthodoxy 38 canonical and 9 non-canonical, but delete and included in the publication of the Bible (in addition, several inconspicuous fragments are considered non-Canonic), in Protestantism 39. Differences may be associated with merging or division of different books.
The Old Testament was originally written in Hebrew with the inclusions of Aramaic, new on Greek, although some texts clearly had a Jewish original. There are many Bible translations.
In the genre attitude of the book of the Bible, it is customary to divide the books on the books of the law (the most important moments of the creeds), historical (the narration of religious significant events), teacher (interpretation of teachings or edification) and, finally, prophetic (various predictions). Prophetic books prevail in the Old Testament and are considered belonging to the parish of Christ. In the New Testament it is considered only Revelation of John (Apocalypse), dedicated to the end of times.
Famous translations of the Bible are Septuaginta (Translation of seventy interpreters, Greek text about III century. BC), Vulgate (translation owned mainly sv. Jerome and made in 383-406, regulatory for the Catholic Church), German Translation M. Luther, Bible King Jacob (Translation of English Protestants). In a private use of the Russian Orthodox Church is Synodal translation (XIX century), made into Russian, but in worship the older church Slavonic version is used.
A number of attempts to translate the Bible into modern Russian were unsuccessful. In addition to the distortion of a number of places that are important in a challenge, a special color has disappeared from the text, inherent in the ancient sacred text that is not exposed to time.
The study of the Bible is considered the responsibility of a believer, but he must be asked for his understanding with the interpretation of the Church, especially on important issues where disagreements are absolutely unacceptable. That is why the church periodically imposed restrictions on uncontrolled reading and distorted texts. The church comes from the fact that not all bible fragments need to be understood literally, directly (for example, those places of the Old Testament, which describe God in human-like images), and in some cases the literal understanding is even unacceptable, for it can distort the true meaning. On the contrary, for some places it is supposed to be literal, literal understanding. For Orthodoxy and Catholicism Bible - Holy Bible - unthinkable without Sacred legend In which it, as it were, resides, is like a crystal that grows out of the solution of the substance.
Reading biblical passages is an indispensable part of worship. In addition, the liturgical texts themselves are saturated with various kinds of quotes and references to the biblical text.
Under Exegetic At the present stage, it is customary to understand the methods of understanding the ancient sacred texts that use theologies of the respective denominations. Exegetics refers to theological disciplines, its methods are limited to theological plants. Hermenevics Indicates "the art of understanding the text as such", and the text is not only verbal, but musical, picturesque, etc.
The terms "Exegetics" and "Germentics" are currently often used as synonyms. To be accurate, then the exegetic should be considered as a special case of hermeneutics.
The Christian hermeneutic tradition begins to form almost immediately after the emergence of the first Christian communities, as the church institutions develop in the Hellenistic world, it increasingly chooses elements of antique science. The formation of the allegorical method attached to the non-binding, "spiritual" interpretations, which revealed the portable values of biblical images and plots, occurred under the influence of antique hermeneutics.
Allegorical interpretations of myths, known already with antiquity (primarily by the writings of neopotonikov), developed in a deep ethical and gnoseological conflict between the content of antique myths and the teachings of philosophical schools. Antique mythology has ceased to meet the developed ethical ideal formed by the philosophical schools of this period.
In mythology, the archaic ideas about the gods as creatures of volatile, passionate, vicious are occurring. The philosophers approached not only to theological monotheism, but also to the idea of God as about the Absolute. To resolve this conflict, it was necessary to offer a different, non-cycle reading of ancient myths, which would not contradict the requirements of ethics and rationalism.
So, Plotin In "Theogonia" offers samples of such allegorical readings, for example, quite a carnal, erotic love, whose personification was considered to be Aphrodite, interprets in completely different categories from the myth: "Since the soul, being different from God, comes from him, love for it makes it a natural necessity for it; But only while the soul lives there, she loves God with heavenly love and remains aphrodite heaven, here it becomes Aphrodite public, as if hetera. So it turns out that every soul - Aphrodite, as prompts the Myth of Birth of Aphrodite, etc. ".
Such interpretation is very far from the verbal meaning of the relevant myths and is essentially an absolutely new construction in ancient foundation. So in antiquity, an allegorical hermeneutics was formed, which will later be inherited by Christian authors.
The allegorical method of interpretation of the Bible dominates most of the church authors of the first two centuries of the existence of the Church. At the same time, a distinctive feature of the Christian allegorism, ascending to the messages of the Apostle Paul, is faith in the execution of the biblical Old Testament prophecies.
For a correct understanding of both early and medieval allegorical exegetics, it is necessary to take into account the relationship Allegoria. and mystical Symbolism And be able to distinguish them. The connection of the allegoria and the symbol, often leading to mixing these concepts, is largely determined by the specifics of the language itself. But the distinction of their WHO is due to the fact that the allegory is characterized by the interpretation of the symbol.
This property of the allegory and was based on an allegorical exegetic church. Since the purpose of Exegetics was the interpretation of the symbols of the spiritual life contained in the text of the Scripture, the value of the text was made dependent on the symbols contained in it and those in need of theological interpretation. The consequence of this was the expansion understanding of the symbolism of the Scripture - the symbolic importance was assigned to each passage, proposal and even the word of the Bible.
Having rejected the exegetic speculation of the allegorical exegetics, followers of the Antioch school, however, did not reduce the exegetic to a literal understanding of the Scripture, or, more correctly, their principle of interpretation left quite wide opportunities for interpretation of not only the historical factory, but at the same time the spiritual layer of the content of biblical books.
For example, Diodor , rejecting allegorical exegetic, approves the principle of interpretation of the Scripture, according to which all the narrative should be understood realistic, as it directly relates to what we are talking about. According to his position, the biblical interpretation must be a blank presentation of the Scriptures. At the same time, "contemplation" must be distinguished from allegorism.
How do allegorical and contemplative understanding of the text relate?
Contemplative understanding, like an allegorical, allows us to consider higher than literal, level value. However, in addition, in contrast to allegorical interpretations, the contemplative understanding does not ignore, but is based on the literal value of the text. The difference in allegoria and contemplation can be traced in the basic principles of contemplative exegetics, according to which the exegenet cannot ignore the literal meaning of the narrative, it must take into account the actual conformity between the historical fact and its spiritual meaning, without mixing them. Contemplation in the history itself opens the highest meaning - the historical realism is not denied by this, but it is assumed. This exactly explained the biblical places of the Apostle Paul.
Origen Not completely rejected the significance of the historical context for understanding and interpreting the Scriptures (although he strongly looked down the importance of such an understanding). Compare:
"The word is intended mainly to express communication in cases of this and must accomplish. And here, where the word found that historical events can correspond to these mysterious subjects, there it took advantage of them to conceal the deepest sense from the crowd; Where is the historical story, written in the sake of higher secrets, did not meet the teachings about spiritual things, there the Scripture was in the story of what was really not in fact, - part of the impossible at all, part of the same possible, but not actually; And at the same time few words are inserted in some places, not true in the bodily sense, in some places - very many " 82. .
"But someone might think that we are talking in that conviction that no narrative of Scripture is really historically, since some of them are not valid, or that no prescriptions of the law are in the letter, because Some of them are opposite or impossible in practice, according to our words, not fulfilled by the letter, or that what was written about the Savior, in our opinion, did not make it sensually, or that the commandments should not be performed literally. This should be answered: we clearly define that it is possible and must maintain the historical truth " 83. .
Like Origen, antihogian exegenes recognized the possibility of a superior understanding, the meaning of the next, higher, level compared to the literal meaning. To indicate such an understanding, the term "contemplation" previously used by Plato was introduced.
Diodorus wrote a treatise that was not preserved to our time, a specially dedicated to the difference between the contemplative and allegorical understanding of the Scripture.
These controversy were devoted to other numerous essays of the adherents of Antioch Eczezis.
It is also necessary to note that the contemplative interpretation of Scripture did not have the nature of the universal exegetic principle, applied if not to all, then to most biblical texts. The followers of the Antioch school were resorted to contemplative interpretations primarily for the disclosure of the spiritual content of the prophetic texts of the Scriptures, the value of which could not be accommodated in the formal framework of vocabulary and grammar, i.e. It was "genre motivated".
Antiochian exegenes, arguing the transcendental nature of the spiritual understanding of the text in relation to literal, at the same time limitedly used typological interpretation, applying typology to the few texts of the Old Testament.
An antiochore exegetic was largely characteristic of a polemical character. Arriving as a protest against the abuse of allegorists, antihogo exegetes fought, however, not with the right of spiritual interpretation of the Scripture, but it is with the extremes of allegorical exegetic. Exploring exegetic writings John Zlatousta , one of the most prominent representatives of the Antioch school, priest I. Meyendorf It notes that the Ekzeketics of Zlatoust is almost completely devoid of allegorization, its interpretations are simple and clear character, but in this case contain typological interpretations.
As noted above, antihogue exegenes, claiming the principle of a literal understanding of the text, did not fall into extremes, which was manifested in exegetic studies of "prophetic typologies". N. Seleznev indicates that one of the most vivid representatives of the Antioch school - Theodore Mopshetsky As a clear opponent of an allegorical approach in the interpretation of Scripture, nevertheless allowed that something or another may have some additional, spiritual meaning. For example, the first and second Adam, covenants with Jews in the sacred history and the New Testament, Adam and Christ, as images of God, can be considered as a prototype (τύπος) and its execution, saying literally - type and archetype.
Typology is the fundamental principle of Antioch Ekzegerezis - based on its own, it contains the thesis that initially not every place of Scripture indicates Christ (has Christology). According to the Antioch Exegetics, typology must be directly motivated by the text, i.e. Only those passages of Scripture, which are due to the messianic idea, are actually typologies.
But this did not obstruct the Antioch Ekzegeusis in general prophetically interpret the Old Testament in the light of Christology, because even if the text of any prophecy did not have direct Messiana, he had it indirectly, since the objective task of the Old Testament to prepare the coming of the Messiah, strengthening the faith of people. Antiochian theologians believed that in the Old Testament, Christ was presented as an exception. However, it is expected everywhere, thanks to prophecies, even if they do not belong to him directly, which is most often happening. The objective task of these prophecies is to prepare his coming, strengthening the faith of people. For the Antioch school, almost all the books of the Old Testament are prophetic.
Thus, the exegetic value of typology is closely intertwined with the theological problems of the interconnectedness of the Old and New Testaments, the "theology of the expectation" of the embodiment of the Messianic prophecies, on which the Old Testament Righteous vera was built, who lived before the coming of Christ Messiah. The historical background of Scriptures is perceived by typological exegetics as real events, through which divine fishery is implemented. In fact, this approach suggests that the entire Old Testament story is the history of the implementation of this plan, which has reached its climax in the award, the birth of Christ and the founding of the Christian Church. The typology of the Old Testament is revealed with this reading as the steps of the path directed from the problems of the Old Testament to the absolute disclosure of the Christian understanding of the Messianism of Jesus Christ, which directly constitutes the content of the New Testament.
The essential development of Christian Exegetics was made possible by the works of Augustine, which in his works formulated a number of significant theses that determined the further development of exegetic throughout the Middle Ages.
These theses can be represented as follows:
- The authority of Scripture is based on the authority of the church. Therefore, books that do not have overall recognition are less authoritative;
- For the correct understanding of the Scripture, the Christian faith is necessary; The spiritual state of the commentator is as important as the methods of interpretation of the Bible used by them;
- The literal value of the text is important for the correct understanding of the Bible, but, nevertheless, it does not contain the entire totality of text values. The use of the allegorical method is justified by the multidimensionality of the values of the very biblical text;
- difficult for understanding the Scripture should be understood in the light of other clear passages;
- In the event of ambiguity of text, the "rule of faith" should be used, i.e. Interpretation cannot contradict the teachings of the Church;
- Texts containing figurative meaning should not be understood literally. To identify a figurative sense, Augustine used a rule resembling the "rule of faith", i.e. If the literal understanding led to violation of the norms of Christian morality or the foundations of faith, it is obvious that the text in question contains a figurative value;
- A repeating literary (poetic) trail does not necessarily have one value everywhere. Its value may vary depending on the context of the narrative. In addition, according to Augustine, this interpretation of the text poetic reception is possible, which was not assumed by the author, if it consistent with other texts of Scripture. Such an extended interpretation of the text does not destroy its value, as it was originally provided by God, inspired by the sacred author. According to Augustine, she "legalized by the Holy Spirit";
- The interpreter has the right to use the various valid text values, regardless of whether they were envisaged by the author or not. According to Augustine, the true value of the text can be disclosed at various levels;
- Old Testament is a Christian evidence due to the Messianic idea contained in it.
In the spirit of the neoplatonism philosophy, Augustine attaches more importance to the spiritual understanding of the Bible than literally. It corresponded to his worldview - Augustine perceived the world as "a clear mirror in which our thought see the reflection of God," and the words of Scripture considered their divine author reflecting their divine author.
Speaking about the exegetic method of Augustine, it should be borne in mind that according to the philosophical concept, which he adhered to, the knowledge of the breathtaking world is made possible mainly mainly due to the effects of God for a person, an informative act is possible thanks to the action of god of God, and not the free will of a person.
Simultaneously with Augustus over the principles of interpretation of the Bible worked Jerome , with the name of which the famous Latin Bible translation is connected - Vulgate.
Biblical comments made up by Jerome, testify to the significant progress of exegetic thought in comparison with the previous exegetics, reflect the deep knowledge of grammar, church history and archeology inherent. Jerome knew except Latin Jewish and Greek. Such education in the highest clearing environment is far from a typical phenomenon.
Despite this, the ionenis exegetic is not devoid of internal contradictions.
First, it is a fundamental contradiction between the theory and practice of Exegetics. It should be borne in mind that in theoretical plan, Ieronim borrowed a lot from Origen, the treatises of which he translated, in particular, was borrowed by the idea that the meaning of the Scripture is revealed on three levels. However, as a rule, in practice, Jerome was limited to two: literal and spiritual meanings.
Secondly, the contradictions of the attitude of Jerome to allegorical exegetic methods are not devoid. Allegorical interpretations of the Jerome was largely as a result of the influence of Origen. However, the degree of this effect should not be exaggerated, since it mainly applied to the theoretical justifications of the methodology, rather than on the interpretation themselves.
The contradictions inherent in the exegetic works of Jerome can be explained by the heterogeneity of the sources underlying the entire Ezenomic Exegetics, on the formation of which the Latin exegetic tradition was influenced, various Schools of Greek Exegetics and Jewish Rabinistic Exegetics.
Approve the value of literal understanding, in his writings, Jerome often preferred an allegorical understanding. According to the reasoned opinion of the American scientist doctor B. Ramma In his theory, Ieronim developed separate convincing principles of literal exegetic, mainly due to the influence of the Antioch school. But in practice, he was a typical allegorist, including in relation to the New Testament.
In the medieval period, the church exegetic developed due to the works of the theologians of the Saint-Victoric Abbey - Hugo, Richard и Andre Saint-Victorovsky.
Researchers have long paid attention to the characteristic feature of Saint-Victorical exegets, which to a certain extent brings them closer to the Antioch School - like John Zlatoust, Hugho Saint-Victorovsky removed the spiritual and moral meaning of Scripture from his literal meaning, and it allows you to spend some parallels between Spiritual interpretation of the Hugo and Contemplative Exegetics of the Antioch school.
As well as for Antiochian theologians, an extremely serious attitude to the literal sense of Scripture is an important distinctive feature of Saint-Victorian exeget. According to their concept, the commenting of the Scriptures should be based taking into account the history, geography and "free arts". The data of the first two sciences mainly create a foundation for literal exegetic, which is necessary for approving the fundamental principles of the Christian faith.
Allegory, according to this concept, are subject to literal sense or, at least, cannot contradict him. Thus, the allegory cannot go beyond the framework of the Christian teaching, which, in turn, is justified by the literal meaning of clear to understand the texts of Scripture.
According to the logic of Saint-Victorovskaya Exegetics, the spiritual meaning of the Scripture cannot be revealed until his literal meaning has been studied, while the study is focused on studying the grammar of the text, i.e. A literal study of Scripture is transferred to the study area of semantics, grammar and syntax.
Medieval theology, perceiving the exegetic principles of patriotics, attempted to unite various forms of exegetic church in the framework of the same system. Thus, an exegetic rule "four meanings", or "quadriga", which is a modification of earlier and less complex forms of interpretation.
According to this method, each excerpt of the Bible (sometimes every word) simultaneously has four levels of meanings - literal, allegorical, anagogic and tropological. In this case, the allegorical significance assumed the disclosure of the dogmatic content of the text, the tropological importance was related to the sphere of moral guidance, the apagogic importance paid attention to the promises of faith.
Quadriga was used not only in the preparation of biblical comments, but also in various genres of church preaching.
The crisis of the medieval worldview, due to the development of the ideas of Renaissance, contributed to the departure from scholastic theology in almost all European universities. But in the north of Europe, in the German states-principalities, Scholasticism continued to remain in honor at the beginning of the XVI century.
Reformed medieval church M. Luther In their early work, adheres to this method. Later, during the reformation, the tradition of evangelical hermeneutics is formed, which actually did not go beyond the boundaries of the literal exegesis. Rejected by the Quadriga, M. Luther and his followers proceeded from the ideas that the main source of theological knowledge is the verbal meaning of the Scripture, the allegorical reading is possible, but it should be motivated or "rule of faith", or the fact that the literal understanding leads to nonsense. M. Luther believed that the complex places of the Bible need to be understood in the light of others, clear passages, proclaimed the principal clarity of the Scriptures, he, however, allowed the presence of separate complex places, the difficulty of which was due to the disadvantage of our historical and philological knowledge or clasping text. Paying great attention to the study of classic languages, M. Luther created prerequisites for the formation of the tradition of Protestant Exegetics, which actually becomes a Christian hermeneutic school.
Under the influence of ideas of rationalism formulated R. Deschart , in the XVII century. A critical direction is formed in hermeneutics, the most prominent representative of which is considered to be the Jewish thinker B. Spinozu.
Not being an atheist, in his hermeneutic studies B. Spinosa, however, was far from orthodox Judaism, and from orthodox Christian theology, although some Protestant views influenced his hermeneutics. B. Spinosa believed that the correct study of the Old Testament is impossible without the most serious study of the Jewish language, and wider - the spiritual culture of the Jewish people, biblical images and descriptions, he considered it, should be interpreted in the light of the Old Testament religion, given the historical features of creating each book . As a result of linguistic studies and critical analysis of parts of the biblical narration, B. Spinoza raised the authorship of the first five books of the Bible, the Pentateuch of Moiseeva (in his very name, the traditional attribution of the authorship of the Old Testament Prophet Moses was reflected), the accuracy of the wonders described in the Bible, radically rethought the question of revelation. The Bible's Bible was interpreted not as an objective property of biblical text, but as its consistency with the divine ethical ideal.
In the XVIII century Critico-textological analysis of the Old Testament led to the formation "Documentary hypothesis "The essence of which came down to the idea that the Pentateuction is a product of a mechanical connection of two textual sources independent of each other. Based on the fact that some excerpts of the Pentateuch refers to God - Yahweh, and others - Elohim, it was suggested that, respectively, these excerpts relate to two different traditions mechanically combined in Pentate. The demarcation of the texts of the proposed different authors ("Yakhvista" and "Elochist") was capable of, according to supporters of the instrumental hypothesis, explain the reaches and contradictions existing in the text. Supporters of the instrumental hypothesis were not atheists, although their hermeneutics was definitely very liberal and dismissed with church orthodoxy.
Modern hermenevics is unthinkable without the famous "hermeneutic circle", the notion of which was first formulated F. Shleiermar . By paying attention to the dialectical relations of the part and the whole, F. Shleiermacher formulated the thesis, according to which part of the text can be understood only from the whole, but also a whole may be meaningful only taking into account the components of its parts. Thus, the understanding of the text turns into an infinite process, the symbol of which has become an expanding circle.
In many ways, influenced by F. Shleiermachera and Hegel formed Tubingen school The name of which over time became a symbol of liberal theology (critics of the Tubingen school even ironically called her Tübingen school atheism).
The founder of the Tübingen school is considered to be the German Evangelical Their Ferdinanda Baura. (1792-1860). In the spirit of the philosophy of Hegel, F. Baur tried to interpreting the history of early Christianity as a result of the dialectic opposition of the two trends of Judeanism (named, named by the apostle Peter Petrinism) and Ellino-Christianity (named Apostle Paul, Pohulinism). The result of the dialectic synthesis of these two began F. Baur saw in the Gospel of John.
In accordance with a given scheme, supporters of the Tübingen school were forced to revise the traditional biblical chronology, which, in general, did not confuse them.
The liberal ideas of the Tübingen school in the field of Exegetics were developed by representatives of various liberal areas, among which should be mentioned Albrecht Richal (1822-1889), Rudolf Bultman (1884-1976), Paul Tilich (1886-1965). All of them proceeded from the understanding of the Bible as before, of all imperfect text written by people, rejected the actual accuracy of biblical miracles, argued the mismatch of the images of "historical Jesus" and "Jesus Bible" (that is, the image of Jesus, which is presented in the Bible) .
Liberal Exegetics gave rise to a deep crisis in European Christianity, the consequences of which continue to affect today.
A variety of exegety-hermeneutic activity is transfers. Options for understanding the text in different translation versions illustrates Table. one.
Options for understanding the text in different translations
|In. 1: 1-5||MF. 11: 27-30|
|Translation of the Bishop Cassiana||1. At the beginning there was a word, and the word was with God, and the word was God. 2. It was at the beginning with God. 3. All through it arose, and nothing has happened without it, which arose. 4. There was life in it, and life was light to people. 5. And the light in the darkness shines, and the darkness did not open it.||27. Everyone entrusted to me by my father, and no one knows the Son, except for his father; Also, no one else's father, except son and those who want to open the Son. 28. Come to me all carrying a grievous burden of work and worries, and I will calm you! 29. Take the Igor of my 'Commandments' and study, for me, for me, I am a humble heart, and find peace of your souls, 30. Because I go good to' carry, and my burner is easy.|
|Translation of the priest L. Lutkovsky||1. At the beginning there was a word, and the word was with God, and the word was God. 2. It was at the beginning with God. 3. Everything that God created in a word, and without him, and outside it, "nothing exists from the courtes. 4. It was a source of life, and life is light for all people. 5. And this light shines in the darkness, but the darkness does not absorb it.||27. Everyone I was transferred to my father, and no one knows my son, except for my father, and no one knows the father, besides the son and those whom the Son wishes to open. 28. Come to me all who works and burdened with concerns, and I give you peace. 29. Make my google for yourself and learn me with meekness and humility of the heart, and gain peace for your souls; 30. After all, the google is good, and the burden of mine is easy.|
|Translation V. N. Kuznetsova||1. It was originally the one who is called the word. He was with God, and he was God. 2. He was originally with God. 3. Everything was created through it, nothing was created without him. 4. He was a source of life, and life was light for people. 5. Light shines in darkness, and darkness could not be absorbed.||27. No one knows the Son, except for the Father, and Nobody knows the Father, besides the Son and who will wish to open the Son. 28. Come everything to me, exhausted by a heavy burden! I will give you a rest! 29. Put on yourself the yoke of my commandments and learn: Because I am soft and meek heart, and you will finally rest, 30. After all, the commandments are my simple and noshe my light!|
|In. 1: 1-5||MF. 11: 27-30|
|Translation edited by μ. P. Kulakova||1. At the beginning of the 'Total' there was a word, and the word was with God, and the 'itself "it was God. 2. The word from the beginning of 'already' was with God. 3. Through it, everything has gained its beginning, and nothing has happened from everything that arose. 4. There was life in the word, and this life is light to people. 5. This light and in darkness shines: she did not overcome it.||27. Everyone entrusted to me by my father, and no one knows the Son, except for his father; Also, no one else's father, except son and those who want to open the Son. 28. Come to me all carrying a grievous burden of work and worries, and I will calm you! 29. Take the Igor of my 'Commandments' and study, for me, for me, I am a humble heart, and find peace of your souls, 30. Because I go good to' carry, and my burner is easy.|
|Synodal translation||1. At the beginning there was a word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God. 2. It was at the beginning of God. 3. All through it began to be, and without it nothing began to be that began to be. 4. There was life in him, and life was light of people. 5. And the light in the darkness shines, and the darkness did not argue it.||27. Everyone is made to me by my father, and no one knows the Son, except for the Father; And the Father does not know anyone except son, and to whom the son wants to open. 28. Come to me all we are worried and burdened, and I will calm you; 29. Take my google for yourself and learn from me, for I'm meek and humble heart, and find peace of your souls; 30. For Google is good, and the burden is easy.|
7.3. Creation of Christianity
Christianity is monotheistic religions. His feedback stems from two sources - the Holy Scriptures (Bible) and the Sacred Tradition (the living church, crystallized primarily in the writings of the Church's Fathers (the most revered authors, which, however, were never considered initially unmistakable) and decisions of church power). But only this legend is not exhausted. The Bible itself is in some way to his part, since the church eventually normalized her composition and gave the interpretation of her texts.
The creed of the church is compressed and in the main points set out in the text adopted on the Ecumenical Councils and hereinafter Nikeo Constantinople Symbol of Faith (Being preserved at the Tried Catholic Church Cathedral, he is more famous there called Triedent symbol Where is the clarification of the state of the Holy Spirit from the Father and Son).
God is understood as an intangible, an infertable self-sufficient personal beginning, which exists in addition to the world, which created him from nothing and supporting its existence. On the issue of evolution, a number of theologians adhere to the opinion that this teaching can be acceptable if it is interpreted as a way of stadial creation under the control of God (directed evolution), the details are referred to science. In general, the Bible "teaches not the outside of the sky, but how to get there." God has to the omniscience, as he sees the universe from eternity, his knowledge is incomparable with human and completely knowing his ideas a person is not able to humility, faith, and sonterior confidence.
The foresight of the God of events is referred to in Christian theology Providence. Its only partial complicity for a person is due to the indigenous difference between the other and created worlds, temporary and eternal.
An important feature that distinguishes Christianity from Monotheism in Judaism is the doctrine of God as about Trinity, according to which God is one, but exists in three persons - God Father, God Son и God of the Holy Spirit. This is not three God, but at the same time these individuals are really separate, and not conditionally. The doctrine of the Trinity is considered to be outside the usual mind and requiring faith.
The second face of the Trinity, the God of the Son, embodied in the face Jesus Christ. Name Jesus - ordinary earthly, often used in Palestine began a new era, Christ - Rather, the title, that is Messiah (anointed, having special power).
According to Christian teaching, Christ was born from Virgin Mary. (Virgin), a righteous Jewish woman, through the descent of the Holy Spirit. She miraculously remained a Virgin (hence the title Name), She had no other children, and Joseph He was only legally and had to Jesus called his father. The act of the Virgin is gaining particular importance in view of its voluntary consent on such an unprecedented feat. It was Christ from her and perceived human flesh.
Christ is considered the perfect God and the perfect person, harmoniously combined two nature and two wills - the divine and human, of which no one absorb another. Human nature was in everything like the nature of people, in addition to the presence of any sin. Otherwise, he shared the fate of a person - he could get tired, rejoice, tolerate physical and mental pain, finally, to die with his human nature. Thus, according to Christianity, God as close as possible approached people from love for them (this is referred to as Kenosis - self-confined, paradoxically combined with the extraterrestrial majesty of God). He voluntarily exposes himself to unfair accusations, condemnation and death on the cross, thus performing a redemptive sacrifice for humanity. The victims, brought in the Jerusalem temple, become unnecessary from now on, and Christ himself is the new high priest of the New Testament, i.e. New Union of God and Humanity.
For the real death of Christ followed his descendment to the hell, from where he brought all the dead righteous people who waited for the arrival of the Messiah, the resurrection as a victory over death (Easter is celebrated in honor of this, the main holiday of the Christian calendar), then his ascension to the sky.
However, not attending on Earth directly, Christ remained there in the form of a church, which also conveyed his power and the right to act on his behalf and his authority. The church is interpreted as Mystical body of Christ. Day of the emergence of the Church is considered to be the fiftieth day after the Resurrection of Christ, when his students-apostles receive a special consecision of the Holy Spirit (third party of the Trinity). From this point on, the Church, according to Christian teaching, begins to grow and its existence will last until the end of times.
Thus, Christianity implies that God himself brought himself sacrificing for people, since all other victims were insufficient and temporary, making it voluntarily from love for them.
The church is understood as a community of people who have entered the saving plan of Christ through baptism (it replaced the Old Testament Circumcision). In addition to the baptism, joining the church through martyrdom for faith of those who were not baptized and the possibility of salvation in the grace of God of God, who led a virtuous life and sincerely did not know Christian creed, but abuse such an opportunity forbidden. The church unites both living and dead, why their mutual prayers are possible for each other. Main service - Liturgy - not only unites all the believers Christians, but also the world of heaven with earthly.
Christian angelology (the doctrine of angels) has a lot in common with the Jewish.
God is the Creator of the world, but besides people, he also created Angels - disembodied spirits having a personal nature and abiding outside space and time. They (on what the literal translation indicates) are service perfumes, praising God and performing his will. Angels are traditionally divided into nine ranks (hierarchical steps). The calling of angels in prayer is recognized as the prayer, holy. Despite the disembodiment, according to Christian angelology, the angels have the ability not only to be in bodily guide, but also to create the feeling of the materiality of this appearance. This ability has been preserved for fallen angels, which increases the possibility for permit and temptations. Some of the angels fell into the greatest sin, pride, rebelled against God and was forever rejected from him. So appears Satan (Devil) and his servants (demons, demons, devils), those. fallen angels. They do not have (unlike a person) hope for forgiveness, since their sin is irreversible, they are obsessed with absolute hatred of God and people, the desires of people to harm in every way.
In different periods of the history of Christianity, demonology, ideas about the methods of action of fallen spirits changed. However, the church, warned against excessive hobbies, "search for demons", when the latter turn in almost the "negative deities", which displacing the periphery of God himself warns of the reality and diversity of their goats, offering rituals of fences from them. The confession and communion are considered to be the strongest means, but there are also special rites of expulsion of demons of obsessed, the will and the mind of which they enslaved entirely (they always need to distinguish mentally ill). A conscious attempt to conclude an alliance with Satan is considered as a serious sin of godmond and violence against his own God, which can still be forgiven with proper repentance.
God, creating a man endowed with the flesh, and therefore, in a certain attitude, more weak than Angels, wanted to create just such a phenomenon, having an appropriate idea about him. It lies a special mission, he cannot and should not turn into angel, although it is obliged to fight evil in himself. From here, the foundations of Christian anthropology (the teachings about a person and its place in the world).
Sin is understood as a violation of the will of God, expressed primarily in the commandments. The sinful desires and temptations are not sin, they are caused by human weakness and his stay in the imperfect world. Sin occurs only from the moment of consent with the temptation and commit. He insults God, distorts the human nature itself, harms other people, prevents salvation, i.e. enter into paradise. Catholicism emphasizes distinction deadly sins и Sins of less Distinguished by the criterion of completeness of voluntary and consciousness.
An important place in Christianity is the cult of saints. In the broad sense of the word, Saint - A man imbued with grace, who achieved salvation and illuminated by God. In church source, the saints are called the righteous, who are officially recognized as such church, and the public appeal to them in prayers is allowed and prescribed. To avoid confusion, it should be separated righteous (who lived godly) and saints who were special feats of holiness and had a special grace. In the first centuries, the saints were almost exclusively Martyrs (killed for faith) and Confessors (We have undergogered suffering), then the other categories of saints.
Official canonization (The calculation procedure for the holy) lasts usually long and is committed thoroughly to avoid spelling decisions, since this act is considered to be responsible and excluding hasty. In Catholicism, it is divided into two stages: Batification (Calculation to blissful) and actually canonization.
The status of blissful close to the status of the local saint in Orthodoxy, i.e. Particularly revered in a certain area.
The prayers for the saints are allowed and approved, since the saints not only do not cease to be members of the church, but they see God's "directly", and therefore you can contact them about the same way as believers turn to someone from people. They never equated to God and were not put on one level with him, but were and remain exactly people. I glorify the saints, the church glorifies God through them, who gave them grace of holiness. God is the final addressee of all praises to the saints.
The saint is usually timed to the day of memory, services that are dedicated to them. The church condemns the primitive "folk" reverence of the saints, when their cult unnoticed the worship of God. In Catholicism, the honors of the saints are often interpreted in terms of "merit", i.e. Saints talked so great grace that they could "share" with others. This is largely the terminological feature inherent in Western theology, it is clear that holiness is not subject to and does not accumulate, like money in a bank, but in order to talk about it, you have to resort to some terminology, although it may contain a conventionality. The saints are performed and the function of a moral example, and their lives are shroud reading.
Surrounding the Virgin Mary. Her role is considered unique, because it was she gave human flesh to Christ, and then divided the works along with Apostles (without possessing the apostolic authority). It is honored "above the angels, since none of them was given such honor. It is often mentioned in prayers.
Grace is the most important category of Christian thinking and creeding. Under it is understood by the intangible force coming from God, helping the person to achieve salvation. Although it is sent exclusively by God, a person is obliged to make efforts to become worthy of her receipt. The source of grace - Christ, endowed it mainly through the church and its intercessory function, the special ways to obtain it - prayer and church sacraments. Without her, salvation and normal spiritual life is impossible. Any act leading to her loss will threaten salvation. The priests, even regardless of their personal qualities, are graceholders, especially through the sacraments. Although grace is sent by God, she is not God himself, otherwise there would be a threat to the mixing of the Divine and Creation.
The first teaching about the grace developed in detail the famous Christian theologian, philosopher and father of the church of St. Augustine. Orthodoxy especially emphasizes the moment Feozisis (from Greek. Ebel) when creation seems to be soaked as grace as they approach God.
Ethics of Christianity is unthinkable without teaching about the moral principles of Christ, which are peculiar bringing to the logical harness of the moral principles of Judaism. Many perceive them as irrational, impracticable or requiring extreme heroism, which is capable of only a few (for example, the command love to love enemies). However, the ethics of Christianity is still so paradoxical.
Firstly, Christianity recognizes that the desire to meet the New Testament requirements is ideally only with the help of grace and is not achieved on their own, only only the voltage of the will. Without this, the implementation of commandments related to Christian love is unthinkable.
Secondly, the life of the Christian is understood as a complex movement of increasing towards holiness (with undesirable, but inevitable periodic drops), as a slow feat, doing with the awareness of his own genuine place in this world (humility), and not just a beautiful gust provoked by a splash emotions. Therefore, more free exercise of ideals of gospel love thinks as achievable not immediately and as the spiritual growth associated with prayer and ascetic.
Thirdly, the love is understood primarily not a sentimental experience and not emotion (and this particular word began to be understood in a modern context and with such a meaning entered into a wide use), although the emotions of joy in relation to enemies are possible. In love, the volitional desire to accomplish the benefit and unsuspecting evil, conscious as correct (whatever the emotions, joyful or grave, will be accompanied by). A peculiar "minimum" love for the enemy is the nast of moral and physical evil and prayer for him.
Christian ethics is not a "non-persistent" and does not call for non-resistance to physical violence, since it would lead to an unlimited spread of evil and, in the end, to enter the soul of the most unspecable, since he was internally accepted him, spiritually capitulated before him. Resistance to evil is permissible, although forced (less perfect, but not sinful in a simple sense) if the evil is clearly expressed, it is open physical nature and threatens to other people, in addition to the person himself, decisive about the resistance (if there were no last condition, Almost oppression would be only his business and his personal responsibility).
Before not resistance, it is unacceptable to hide the cowardice, indifference to what is happening and the desire to remain morally impeccable in a personal plan, making a victim of the destiny of neighbors, because Christianity is not a religion only and exclusively individual salvation, without care about the fate of others (in the church itself there is a community moment). At the same time, a mission is not allowed (both physical and any other), rampant bloodthirsty passions or destructive aspirations under the cover of the need to resist. Hence the weighted attitude of orthodox Christianity to wars when recognizing the true world as the provisions of cases corresponding to the intention and the will of God. Absolute and consistent pacifism is inherent in only some communities.
The imperfection itself of earthly life, where there is a sin, makes the emergence of situations inevitable when power resistance becomes permissible and even forced to be necessary. L. N. Tolstoy gave a controne interpretation of the Christian concept of love. His views were challenged by V. S. Solovyov and were subjected to consistent criticism I. A. Ilyin, which made the conclusion about their internal incompatibility with Christianity. After each resistance act, the evil requires self-cleaning, not excluding and repentance. Ethics of Christianity Heroic, but at the same time quite realistic.
7.3.1. ESChatology of Christianity
Individual eschatology is associated with the moment of death. General eschatology refers to the end of the story, which in a Christian vision is associated with the second coming of Christ, the stop and disappearance of time, full of victory over Satan and the evil and the transition of the universe into eternity.
Christianity believes that history and humanity, and the universe - the ultimate phenomenon. Their end is a daughget reality, to which all events are sent. The eschatology and the second coming have two aspects: joyful, associated with the coming of God, and Grozny, associated with the fact that God will appear already as a judge. The terrible court thinks as a celebration of the justice of God, manifested against the background of the trial over the whole human story.
The Bible argues that it is impossible to calculate the deadlines for the second coming and unnecessary, although on a number of indirect signs you can make assumptions about its approach. St. Augustine believed that the eschatological period began with the founding of the church, regardless of how much it would last, several years or many centuries. At the time of the second coming, the dead will resurrect bodyno, i.e. Their souls will get the flesh (this is a very important moment, since Christian anthropology believes that a person, unlike an angel, originally conceived as a gentled flesh, sin does not come from flesh as such, but from its weakness and from the passions of the soul). The righteous will receive their bodies glorified those. Purified and more perfect. Here you can see the difference between Christian ideas about a person from, for example, Plato's philosophy and neoplatonists, according to which the body is only the "Dungeon of the Soul", from which you need to break out. Similar views are frequent and in Gnostics.
The church insists on the principal limb of human history, the inevitability of the onset of the apocalyptic, preceding end, period. The coming of Christ is associated with the appearance antichrist His opponent, which will be clear and implicit means to pursue and spiritually seduce Christians.
ESChatology in the Bible is devoted primarily to the book " Apocalypse »John, Having a complex structure and saturated with very complex images that require very careful interpretation. So, at the discretion of theologians, the words were left to the "millennial kingdom of God", which can be established in apocalyptic times. There is no final interpretation of these words. The church has repeatedly warned that with serious readiness to occur the end of history, an "apocalyptic hysteria" and ridiculous forecasts should be avoided. Not taken by official creed and various options for Millennis Ma. (from lat. Mille. - one thousand), or Haliasm - The exercises that the Second Coming of Christ is associated with the establishment of a special millennial kingdom. It turned out to be accepted point of view, ascending to St. Augustine, that under this kingdom in the Bible should be understood as the period of the church, which has already come. Millenarism is adopted mainly in radical Protestant communities, as well as in some theologians for private opinions.
Christianity retains faith in the justice of God and the posthumous fate of people. The immortal soul is aligned either in hell (place of torment) or in paradise (place of eternal bliss). A posthumous fate, on the one hand, is determined by the justice of God, on the other hand, the affairs and thoughts of a person who is already on Earth outlines his way and his future state. Bliss is understood as a purely spiritual, associated with the appearance of God, who himself is absolute benefit and perfection. Paradise bliss does not think as vulgar idleness or bodily pleasure.
The sinners in the hell are in essence, what they have sought to, hell is not interpreted by the Church as a certain "vitality" of God. It is expressed that the sinner, transferred to paradise, will suffer there even more, since the stay is incompatible there with his personality. Hell is a condition in which God is absolutely absent. The church rejected the doctrine of the advantages of hellish torment expressed Origen At the turn of the II-III centuries. Hell flour is eternal, and it contributes to Christianity an element of realism and even tragedy.
A person appears on an individual court immediately after death (there is an understanding of the Orthodox authors, that this court is preliminary, and staying to a terrible court in some respects temporarily), but at the end of the story there should be Scary court. This is not just a duplication of the already made sentence, but the court of God over the entire history of mankind, where people should see all the historical justice of God.
The church recognizes the practice of prayers for the dead (commemoration), which can be performed during the liturgy, and privately. Accordingly, the existence of the intermediate category of the dead is recognized (hell excludes prayers, and paradise makes them unnecessary). Such are the souls, unworthy of hell, but in the imperfection of life they cannot immediately enter the paradise. In Catholicism, this condition is called purgatory It is these souls that are waiting for prayers for them. Staying in purgatory is sometimes determined by earthly time, but this definition is conditionally, because there is no earthly time and space for earthly limits. In Orthodoxy, the analogue of purgatory is Nataria Through which the soul of the deceased passes. The question of prayers for nretiful babies is controversial. They are not prohibited, but they do not remember them on the temple worship. There is a theological opinion that their souls do not deserve suffering, but they do not fall joy, because, without having received the grace of baptism, they simply cannot accommodate it.
It is interesting to note that the paradise in the Christian submission not only does not abolish the person (like Nirvana in Buddhism), but also does not level personal qualities. Each person receives a reward, according to his life and the system of personality ("how much can accommodate", like the different sizes of the vessels can be filled with different volume of fluid). Not by chance in the Christian iconography, the paradise is often depicted as a hierarchically arranged structure. In general, Christian theology often suggests that heaven and hell is not so much a space of space as a state. At the same time, hellish fire is considered not just a beautiful way, but a real phenomenon, albeit of particular nature.
Death is simultaneously and joyful (meeting with God and getting rid of imperfect earthly life), and Grozny (court) event. The manifestation of grief about the dead, especially excessive, is considered to be a little disadvantaged, a lack of faith, unreasonableness, since the righteous meeting with God is the best fate, only the flour of convicted sinners are terrible. St. John Zlatoust (344-407) said that the funeral of Christians are different from the pagan that there is no crying. It is not by chance that funeral rituals sometimes provide white, i.e. Festive, vestments (black symbolize exactly the spiritual mourning associated with the care itself, but with the need to keep the answer to the highest judge, from here and a number of "terrible" prayers and hymns, this dedicated, for example, Catholic Dies Irae - anger day).
Death is considered and as having pedagogical significance for living, prompting to realize the transit of the earth. Some saints kept the objects associated with the burial, and often prayed and reflected in the cemetery.
7.4. Organization and management of Christian churches
Already in the first centuries of Christianity, there was a division into clergy and laity with the folding of the "monarchical episcopate", i.e. Hard dominance of law and judgment Bishop. Catholicism emphasizes the special role of the Roman Pope as the head of the Church and all Christians. It is the papal authority that makes Catholicism strictly centralized confession, having a single chapter, there are no such centralization in other Christians.
The Christian clergy hierarchical and includes three steps (if you do not consider the younger clergy, or the younger Clear) - Deaconov, Yeerev (priests) and bishops.
Since the vigorious formulas in the Bible itself are not contained in a clear form, their interpretation is left to the decision of the church serving from the face of God.
This is carried out primarily on Universal Council . Congresses of representatives of various church districts (first of all, the clergy itself) to make a decision on problematic issues. The Cathedral is considering not only the problem itself, but also the history of its occurrence, all theological arguments and counterlandists.
The Catholic Church clarifies that the decisions of the cathedral come into force after approval (direct or indirect, immediate or somewhat delayed) dad. Part of the Ecumenical Councils took place before the division of 1054 as a result of Orthodoxy recognizes the seven first (disputes went on the eight of the eighth)) and on this the score stops. The Catholic Church continued to convene the cathedrals with the status of the universal.
We will give official names, dates, the main decisions of the Ecumenical Councils:
- I Nichesky (325) - condemned Arianism and adopted a symbol of faith;
- I Constantinople (381) - the dogma of the Trinity was approved, the Faith symbol was finally adopted;
- Ephesian (431) - the condemnation of Nestorianism, introduced the disassembleness of the conception of Christ and the recognition of the Virgin Mary by the Virgin Mary;
- Chalkidonsky (451) - the condemnation of monophimitis, introduced the dogma of the two nature of Christ in a single hypostasis (personality);
- II Constantinople (553) - condemnation of monophimitis and opponents of the recognition of Christ Bogochlovec;
- III Constantinople (680-681) - condemnation of monobhelism, i.e. The teachings that in Christ were two nature, but only one will - the Divine;
- II Nichesky (787) - condemnation of heresy opponents of reverence icons (iconoborets);
- IV Constantinople (869-870) - the condemnation of the abuse of the Byzantine Patriarch of Fothia, which imposed a conflict with Rome;
- I Lateran (1123) - the final recognition of celibate for the Western clergy;
- II LATEAN (1139) - the tightening of the discipline, the prohibition of Simonia (providing advantageous church posts for the fee), condemnation of some heretical movements;
- III LATEAN (1179) - the cessation of the split caused by the appearance of self-proclaimed dads (antiparts), taking measures to eliminate such cases;
- IV Lateran (1215) - new church legislation, disciplinary reform, streamlining parish life; recognition of heresy to the teachings of Qatar and Waldens; confirmation of the traditional teaching about the sacraments;
- I Lyon (1245) - questions about crusades, condemnation of a number of lzhemistry eresies (not all the so-called crusades were initiated by the official church authority, in addition, their move and the results could not coincide with the original designs);
- II LION (1274) - the streamlining of church income, the definition of the rules of the Conclave, choosing dad. A positive decision of the issue of the possibility of reuniting Western and Eastern Christians;
- Viennesky (1311-1312) - the condemnation of a number of heresies;
- Konstanzsky (1414) - a number of organizational reforms and the condemnation of predeformation teachings of the weekef and I.Gus;
- Ferraro-Florentine (1431-1449) - the proclamation of UNI with Orthodoxy;
- V Lateran (1512-1517) - preliminary decisions on church reform;
- Triedentic (1545-1563) - the program "Catholic reform", the strengthening of discipline, condemnation of reformation teachings, recognition and systematization of traditional dogmatic;
- I Vatican (1869-1870) - Constitution Pastor Aeternus, dogmat about the errorship of papal judgments;
- II Vatican (1962-1965) - the program of church reforms of an updated nature (relative to the status of this cathedral as an universe in the Catholic world of unity; adherents of strict conservatism refer to its underfloor nature, making it from the universal conventional one, and decisions are not possessing initial errorlessness and, therefore, not binding to automatic submission).
Congress only one church province is called Located cathedral (sometimes - Synod) And does not have the privileges of an error-free solution, which is among the universal cathedrals.
The most important solutions of cathedrals relating to things that are important to save the souls and mandatory for all are naming Dogmata. It is eternal and unchanged, it can only be uncomplicated to refine or receive a more complete interpretation that does not affect its essence, without revising. New dogmas can be proclaimed if they do not contradict the same, although Orthodoxy after the VII of the Ecumenical Cathedral refrains from such decisions. In the XIX century By the decision of the I of the Vatican Cathedral behind the Pope, Roman recognized the right to proclaim dogmatic solutions and without the Universal Cathedral. The Pope privilege used three times (dogma of the immaculate conception of the Virgin Mary, her taking to heaven, as well as the recent final condemnation of the female priesthood). The proclamation of such a decision is associated with serious theological advice. Private and controversial theological opinions ( Theologians) In some cases, cease to be such after clarifying the issue of the official decision of the Church.
The life of the church is regulated by church law, the liturgical use of the charter. The right of the Orthodox Church consists primarily from the decisions of the universal and number of local councils. The Catholic Church in 1917 ordered and systematized the canonical law, making it in the form of a single code broken into sections and numbered canons.
Part of the organizational issues is solved by special church courts and commissions.
The church territory is divided into the district - the dioceses, at the head of which are the ruling bishops, legally appointed to these positions. Small dioceses can be combined into larger, including Metropolis, headed by a bishop with title Metropolitan. The ruling bishop can help (vicious) bishops.
In Catholicism, all diocesan structures eventually obey dad.
Orthodoxy consists of several independent churches ( AutoChephal , from Greek. "Having own chapter"). Some of them are headed by bishops in San Patriarchs. Among them and the Russian Orthodox Church, in 1593 it became not only an auto-tech, but also by the controlling Patriarch. Some have status autonomous Not fully independence. The number of autocephalous and autonomous churches is not initially determined, the question of the autocephaly is solved in a specific historical situation (in practice, those chapters are considered legitimate autochefal churches. Diptych - For commemoration at the solemn service). The orders of the head of the autocephalous church are mandatory only for belonging to it. The official unit of diocese is coming - Local community, at the head of which is the priest assigned to the rebel.
Special estate is a monasticism. These are believers who want to lead Christian life with special severity. Initially, monasticism arising around the III century, there was a form of individual and collective hermit. Later, communities regulated by more clear rules - monastic charters began to appear. After the legalization of Christianity, the number of people who were looking for a stricter life increased.
Eastern monasticism based mainly on tradition sv. Vasily Great (329-379) and sv. Feodora Studita (759-826), more uniformly.
Western has the order system. With the community of major vows, each Order has its own charter, which makes the emphasis on different forms of spiritual life (rejection, prayer-contemplative life, missionary, Christian education, patient care, etc.). There are I. Third orders - Miryan communities bringing small vows and those considered members of the Order. The most famous from many existing are Benedictine, Franciscan, Dominicans (All got the names on the names of the founders), Jesuita (Society of Jesus), Tsistercians, Lazarists, Vorbists, Redrectorists. Many orders have female branches.
Monasticism, as a rule, implies life in the monastery, although the monks having Diakone ( Ierodics) and sacred ( Hieromona) San, can be directed to other ministry. According to a special resolution, the monk can live outside the monastery, to the world.
The adoption of monastics is preceded by a long period of testing (obedience), when a person checks the seriousness of his intentions, loyalty to the solution and can leave the monastic community on legal grounds. Monastic asceticism is not killing the flesh in the literal sense (it would be suicide), and its taming and transformation. In addition, the monk makes his business not only for itself, but also for the whole world, that is, monasticism is interpreted as a kind of "ministry of the world through removal from him."
Large monasteries were very often cultural centers. With them there were educational institutions, libraries, the whole philosophical schools were often formed (so, the philosophical school of the Victorians was named by the name of the Monastery of St. Viktor in Paris).
7.5. Christian theology
Christianity recognizes the possibility of knowing God already in this world (of course, not completely, because only God himself knows himself) and does not accept agnosticism, according to which God either can be represented at all, or give birth to "not mind, and in heart." In this case, the religious life would turn into chaos, the competition of personal opinions, insights and guesses. God's knowledge as the necessary path to it is carried out not only through personal prayer, worship service and pious reflections on him, but also through the procedures of rational order, through theology (about the specifics of theology as a kind of knowledge said in Ch. II). Christianity recognizes natural and supernatural revelations. Theology rationally comprehends the results of the revelation.
Theology It is interpreted as knowledge of God through what they are reported in revelations. Christianity recognizes that all people are carriers of a natural revelation, when God can be represented through the traces of its presence, preserving in the universe. Thus, the very fact of his being, for which quite thorough rational reflections can be. Part of the truths about him, for example, about his triune essence, are the subject of a special, supernatural revelation, which, exceeding the mind, does not exclude it and does not rebel attempts to rationally and systematically comprehend this in revelation.
The sources of Christian theology are the Bible (as the main) and the legacy of ancient philosophy (as a source of already available concepts and methods of thinking and reasoning, and mostly authoriters are Aristotle and Plato, as well as their followers).
At the initial period of development of Christianity (approximately the first three centuries), the attitude towards theology was not unequivocal. Some considered the "science of God" by the pagan borrowing, the opinions were expressed that the theology is identical to the faith in God, his glorification and pious life (such views are eating Origen and Turrtullian; the latter was embarrassed by the possibility of the appeal of Christian thought to heritage of pagan culture, it was assumed that in her, In addition to delusions, nothing can be). The term "theology" itself entered into widespread use of no earlier than V c. In many ways, thanks to St. Augustine, one of the first stems of theological problems.
In the history of theology, it is possible to distinguish three main stages divided into smaller. it Patriotics, Scholasticic и Theology of the new and the newest time.
The period of patricians in the east lasts until the VIII century, in the West - to the VI century. It is characterized by the formation of the original theological and dogmatic base and the creation of the creative synthesis of the biblical worldview and the ancient idealistic philosophical thought, understood as the heritage of people who tried to know the divine, and in need of selection and processing.
Then in the West, classical scholasticism is formed, which is divided by early period (VII-XI centuries), mature and late. It is characterized by a high degree of systematization of knowledge, severity of construction and conclusions, interest in solving abstract problems, which indirectly contributed to the development of scientific knowledge in general, in particular - philosophy and logic. The rod of its method is the concept of two levels of knowledge: supernatural, given through revelation, and natural, "second level", but relative to independent and reinforcing knowledge of the first level.
The XIII centuries are considered flourishing the scholasticology. One of the largest theologists of mature scholasticism is St. Thomas Aquinas with his fundamental labor "The amount of theology " Scholasticism in its tomstory form (ascending to the writings of St. Thomas Aquinsky - the word "Tomis" occurred from the Latin pronunciation of his behalf as Thomas) becomes the most authoritative direction of Western theology. In 1879, Tomis was declared the official philosophy of the Catholic Church by Encyclick Lev XIII (this stage of development of Tomism is usually referred to as neurology). He influenced the interpretation of a number of theological issues.
During the Renaissance period, the desires for the erosion of scholasticism and the introduction of the spirit of the esoteric, secret teachings of the neoplatonic sense or non-Christian origin in her, but the official position of the church did not undergo changes. The thought of Renaissance sometimes broke the balance achieved in theology in favor of ancient philosophical traditions, reducing the biblical component of theology.
In countries not affected by the Reformation, Scholasticism is still long, during the XVI century., Occupied a leading position.
The new stage of theology is in many ways with disputes of the era of counter-processing, while supporters of M. Luther and other reformers created (or tried to create) their theological systems. Moreover, over time, they returned in many respects to the scholastic type of theology. Theology of this period was forced to sharpen apologetic (defective) issues, which was due to the spread of freight and direct atheism, to solve new issues brought by the most replaced era (for example, to concretize the teaching of the Church on the Social Question), take into account the data obtained by a number of sciences, including accurate and Natural, as well as lead controversy with modernists, supporters of complete abandon from traditional theology in the spirit of the new culture.
There are options for theology associated with the philosophy of the new time. So, R. Descartes attached his philosophy and apologetic significance, believing that they were the proposed method of consistent doubt, stopping only on the fact that it is impossible to doubt, it is better suited for a person's new era.
Continues to exist and scholasticism, often referred to non-cholester Unlike Scholastics Middle Ages. She develops theology at the new stage, some Protestant theologians are adjacent to it.
In the east, you can also talk about the existence of the theology of scholastic type, but with some features that do not copy Western scholasticism. Neoplatonic traditions summarized St. Grigory Palama, having put forward the mystico-irrationalistic concept of the god-knowledge, according to which God himself unrecognizable, but his radiance, Divine Energy (not to be confused with the energy as a term psychic). The organic development of Eastern theology was interrupted by the fall of Constantinople in 1453
Theological Thought was brought to Russia as Christianization and involvement in the field of Christian culture. The main stages of the development of Russian theology are largely coincided with the events in the life of the country. It:
- the domtomongol period, when attempts to produce their own style of theological thinking, differing from the Byzantine bred;
- period of centralization;
- XVI century, the beginning of the first serious contacts with the West in view of the functions of the reformation occurring there;
- the epoch of the Russian Baroque (XVII century), when a significant role was to play Kiev-Mogilyansky Academy of Academy and representatives of theological circles close to it;
- the post-work period and the strengthening of contacts with the West;
- XIX century, including the theological aspects of disputes of Westerners and Slavophiles with projects for creating genuine Russian theology, the influence of the philosophy of German romantics and F. V. Schelling, theology of Russian spiritual schools (academic theology);
- the silver age associated with some original theological ideas, including attempts to restore the closer and organic bond with a society, especially the intelligentsia, among which there was an acute interest in religious issues;
- theology of the post-revolutionary period;
- theology of the turn of the XX-XXI centuries.
As a kind of phenomenon, it is worth mentioning the spread in Russia at the beginning of the XX century. Imparably with their theological ideas, in many respects in the irrationalism. It arose among the monks of the Athos Monastery, going to Isihazma and the Neoplatonic theological ideas.
Some otherological schools also include the Eastern Christian Bologovo, although the Byzantine was a trunk.
There are some differences between Western and Eastern Christian thewieth, including those caused by the peculiarities of languages and cultures.
Theology showed an interest in the largest philosophers of antiquity, emphasizing a number of ideas from their concepts. The Philosophy of Plato, and to the Western, philosophical tradition of Aristotle, but to represent these two major theological branches as "Platonovskaya" and "Aristotelian" would be simplified. Both Platononism and Aristothelism were popular and in the East, and in the West, and in different periods of their popularity changed.
Sometimes in the activities of one thinker combines theology, and religious philosophy (St. Augustine, Grigory Nissky (IV century), sv. Thomas Akvinsky, P. A. Florensky, K. Bart, R. Guardini (1885-1968), Greek theologian N. Nissiotis (1925-1986)). Theological problems sometimes owned religious philosophers who were not theologous in the strict sense of the word (V. S. Solovyev, L. P. Karsavin (1882-1952), Catholic philosopher Yu. M. Bokensky (1902-1995)). A feature of Western theology is a clearer separation of theology and philosophy as the sciences of relatives, but not identical. At the same time, philosophy thinks as a multiplying knowledge of God with his own, it is its inherent methods.
The church recognizes that without rational theological control, the persistent existence of a systematic creed, dogmatic system, is impossible. The design and proclamation of dogmas, the definition of the belief of any views is made precisely with the help of the arsenal of theology.
7.6. Worship and sacraments in Christianity
Christianity gives the most important importance to liturgical rituals, believing that a normal religious life is impossible without them. The minimization of Christianity only to the moral sermon brought by Christ is considered impossible because it is not enough for the fulfillment of such claims of human own forces, the grace obtained through rituals is needed. The church has repeatedly condemned as heretical teachings that a person can achieve salvation by its own using Christ as an example.
Rituals are described not only in the Old Testament, they are committed in the New Testament. Their commitment is and regulated by the debt, and the need of truly believer.
Historically, different types of worship were developed in different territories, different liturgical traditions. The most famous are Liturgy of Byzantine type, committed in Orthodoxy and Liturgy Rimskaya (Latin), practiced by Catholicism, although the latter allows for the use of other Christian liturgies, if they do not contain the heretical elements (all Catholics-Uniats are used by this right). There are also more rare options for western and eastern worship services (for example, Liturgy Armenian).
In addition to the general allocation of civil servants, it implies the use of special liturgical closures differing in individual rituals for different degrees of priesthood and endowed with a certain value. The color of the closures is changing from the nature of the worship service (day or period of the church calendar, the holiday, the day of memory of a saint).
The main elements are Felon, or Riza (in Catholicism referred to ornah), herring (Alba ), Epitrohil (Tables), belt (Qingulum ), Hanging wrappers. The headdress of the Orthodox priest is conical Camilage, given as church award, for the Orthodox and Catholic bishop or a particularly awarded priest - miter.
Rituals are divided into temple and private, homely. The latter includes, for example, mandatory morning and evening prayers.
Prayer is considered as an absolutely necessary part of religious life, the texts already entered the tradition, verified by chalk and accumulating spiritual experience, which can, however, are supplemented with free, arbitrary prayer. This is not just fulfilling the duty, but also the consequence of love for God, the need for communication with him (the church prescribes to pronounce prayers even in the state of spiritual lethargy and crisis). Its regularity regardless of conditions - one of the principles of Christian Askisa, those. The necessary path of improvement and self-discipline to gain salvation.
The main prayers are " FURTHY FROM, "The Mother of God is rejoice "(Lat. Ave Maria) - The glorification of the Virgin and request to her about prayer intercession, a brief glorification of the Trinity, the symbol of faith (LAT. Credo).
Temples are the main place for worship and represent the shrine themselves. They began to actively build after the legalization of Christianity, when worship became free and open. Large temples are called Cathedrals. In Polish everyday temple - church in German-speaking - church That became gradually synonymous with Protestant, especially Lutheran, Temple.
The built temple is specially consecrated. Its useful for other purposes is impossible and dedicated with closing to a new consecration.
In the constructive decision of the temple, the desire to maintain similarity with the planning of the Jerusalem Temple and at the same time introduce the arms of the cross into the architectural plan. In addition, according to one of the theories, the formation of the Plan of the Temple had the impact of the planning of Roman villas, which were provided by secret Christian aristocrats for worship services. Most likely, there was a combination of several trends.
Temples could have a different architectural solution depending on the peculiarities of the local culture, but the general principle of their organization is one and remains so so far (see Fig. 33, 35, 37). They should be stylistically different from ordinary buildings and usually look archaic, which emphasizes their timeless character.
The temple has a three-part division: focus (once there were repeated and only preparing for baptism - ache), middle part (in it focused praying) and altar (Here is the clergy, he is a service center).
The center of the altar part is throne, on which the sacrament is committed Eucharist. The Orthodox throne of the cubic shape, in Catholicism he is closer to the parallelepiped. In the temple, there are usually several side altars, there can be many in large temples: Takery (extensions) having their own altars are sanctified in honor of the saint or some event separately, their name does not coincide with the main name of the temple.
In the typical Catholic church, the altar is separated by a low partition, in the Orthodox - Iconostas (High "wall" from icons located in a row in a strictly defined order). The latter appeared around the IX century. As an incidence of the icons of the altar partition, and the highest iconostasis formed in Russia.
In the Orthodox church, the side is a kind of an altar table, which prepares bread and wine for liturgies.
The temple is decorated with sacred images; amvon (Place for the speech of the priest; In the Catholic Temple, he traditionally had a kind of suspended balcony), a place for the choir, and in Catholicism also for the organ. May exist Episcopes Department (Special armchair for the bishop).
The attribute of the temple is the bells, the ringing of which varies depending on the type of worship.
The temple is unthinkable without much lighting with a candle and lampad. The start of worship is accompanied by their ignition in the altar part. Candles are both a form of money donation, and a symbol of the prayer state (burning) of the soul. Their use is connected with the special symbolism of the bee and the wax produced by it, since the bees have long symbolized the work of the righteous. For some cases, special candles are manufactured. Electric light is allowed only for general illumination of the temple, it does not have a ritual value and should not be too bright, intrusive.
Temple singing is based on special principles. It should contribute to prayer concentration and not cause emotional exaltation, not to be sentimental. The basis of the Orthodox and Catholic traditional liturgical singing is the old traditions, the system Claims. Western singing system, referred to as Grigorian (named Pope, which is attributed to its creation) is in many respects it looks like melodeklasia.
During the divine service, the priest stands back to the people and face to the altar, which symbolizes his appeal to God and the petition for the people. The ministry of the face to the people practice supporters of update (see paragraph 10.4).
The liturgical texts are usually strictly fixed in special liturgical books (especially this applies to major rituals). The most important are Serviceman (Catholic option - Missal) containing liturgy texts and Church (ritual), Regulating a number of other rituals. For the bishop there is a special liturgical book.
Services are organized by a church calendar, having a number of cycles, periods. The largest holidays are Easter (Resurrection of Christ), around which the whole range of Christian holidays was historically lined up, Christmas, Trinity (Pentecost, the festival of the Fathest of the Holy Spirit on the Apostles, i.e. the Day of the Church). Orthodoxy allocates the twelve major holidays - Twoled. Easter does not apply to them, having an exceptional status. This is the "wandering" holiday, its date is determined by special calculations for each year. Movable are the dates of the holidays counted from the day of Easter. Different days of the calendar associated with the holidays and days of saints have different hierarchical advantages, large and smaller are allocated. In the Catholic calendar, in addition to some of its own saints, some specific holidays appeared (for example, the Holiday of the Body of Christ, an emphasis on the reality of the presence of Christ in the Holy Gifts, the holiday of grieving Mother of God, etc.).
Special holiness is given to the Sunday Day, a kind of Small Easter. On this day, heavy work is being prohibited and be sure to visit the Temple Service, as in large holidays.
The commission of worship has cyclicality. The most important is a one-year cycle, fixed by a calendar, and a daily cycle, providing for the commission in a certain sequence of small worship services, for which it is not always necessary to find in the altar part of the temple. The order of these small worship services is regulated Character (in Catholic practice - Breviaria). For Orthodoxy, a weekly cycle is also important, when every day of the week is additionally dedicated to a certain event or saint.
The most important component of Christian worship is the sacraments under which the rites established by Christ themselves and reporting subject to the necessary conditions for their grace at the time of their commission (not before and not after, although the action of grace may continue further). Understanding the sacraments is inseparable from understanding of all Christianity and is very important for this purpose, especially if we consider that they are reliefing the features of its creed and organization.
The church determines the seventr the number of sacraments. The sacredness of the sacraments is also contained in the Old Testament, and in a number of other religions (water intake as purification, anointing by any substance, etc.), but in Christianity they have their own specific interpretation.
Epiphany Pushes as an entrance to the church, reports the forgiveness of the original sin
(With leaving, however, his traces that are the source of weakness and sinful temptations), sins committed before baptism, joins the church, opening access to other sacraments.
Baptism is a single, unnecessary sacrament (repetitions are possible only in the event of serious doubts in reality of its commission) and leaves the person a trace, an indelible any sins in the soul. In an exceptional (danger of death and the absence of the clergy), the case is baptized through the shortest possible way in ordinary water. The necessary condition is a triple immersion in water or pouring it with the pronouncement of a tricious formula (in the name of the Father, and Son, and the Holy Spirit), i.e. It must be accomplished in the name of three faces of the Trinity.
Baptism is associated with the name of the name (in Western Christianity there may be several).
Orthodox Christianity approves the need to baptize children, since another path of accession to the church is not provided for them and, despite the absence of arbitrary sins to a certain age, they carry the overall consequences of human sin.
Miropomanazing (in Catholicism - Confirmation) Represents getting
Holy Spirit, which gives strengthening to conduct christian life. Implies anointing Mir (Special consecrated oil) with the pronouncement of laid words. The sacrament is once and unprofitable.
In Orthodox practice, he is committed after baptism, if there is a world. In Catholicism, his commitment is assigned to the achievement of conscious age, when a person can more consciously decide on the continuation of his stay in the church (the grace of baptism is considered sufficient for salvation and without confirmation), and its committing is almost extremely saved for the bishop, the confirmants receive an additional name.
Eucharist is the sacrament associated with Liturgy (in Catholicism
Mesia In the spacious - Lunch ; Liturgy is sometimes understood in a broad value as a totality of liturgical practices and the principles of their organization in general). The first liturgy is considered to be perfect by Christ himself at a secret evening, when they were first pronounced words that became the center of the priest's prayer. Priests and bishops can make it, Deacon only helps during the liturgy.
At a certain solemn moment, when pronounced the priest of special prescribed words specially prepared in the altar bread and wine placed in special vessels ( Potir for wine I. paten for bread, Latin names - Kalics и paten Preceive. Under the latter it is understood by the invisible, but completely real transformation of bread and wine into the body and blood of Christ, when only the appearance, color, smell, taste, other physical properties of bread and wine are preserved, but there will be no more creatures. The presence is the nature of the victim and, as it were, continues the sacrifice of Christ on the cross, without repeating it at the same time, it is understood as a bloodless sacrifice. The presented bread and wine - the holy gifts are the greatest shrine, when they persist after the liturgy in the temple, on the throne, in a vessel, called a donorochor, their holiness is considered exceeding the holiness of all icons and other shrines.
In Catholicism there are special processions with the submission of holy gifts. St. Thomas Aquinsky created special hymns that glorify Christ in the Holy Gifts.
At the end of the liturgy, the priest, its committing, and the presence of laity, ready for this, Seasonable. Regular communion is considered to be a debt, and the need of truly believer, and preventing it - a grave punishment by itself. The most important condition for admission to communion is a preliminary confession with the rehabilitation of sins.
In the Catholicism of Mass, the priest and the bishop daily, and from the beginning of the XX century. Daily communion is allowed. Until recently, only the priest's employee, all the others received the sacrament only under the guise of bread were combined behind Mesca and Bread and Wine. This was motivated by the fact that Christ, being alive, is equally and fully present in any particle of holy gifts, and such a division must emphasize the importance of the clergy and laity differences, especially the priest at the moment Mass.
Confession Represents the sacrament of the vacation of sins, subject to sufficient
repentance. It implies the preparation, sincere and full story to the priest about the pregnursions made and adopting a sincere repeated decision to avoid sin and reasons to him. The confession is usually completed by the release of sins (resolution) given by the authority of God. For grave sins or absence of genuine repentance, it may not be given. In addition to the instructions, the priest imposes Epitimia (This or that shovel punishment). Currently, they are usually not hard.
Public confession practitioned in the first centuries, the public confession in front of the community was replaced by a personal secret confession before the priest, with the arrangement of the strictest obligation to preserve the secrets heard. The confession is prescribed to resort often, it is considered an integral element of spiritual life.
A special form of repentant practice close to the Epitimia is existing in Catholicism Attalion. This is the abbreviation of a temporary punishment for sins, which is given to the Church's authority for sins (gravity and disasters on earth, in purm). Indulgence never replaced confession and the sacrament was not. It implies a preliminary confession, the accomplishment to which it is timed (for example, visiting a certain temple or reading prayer), and prayer for the needs of the Church, as well as sincere disgust to all sins. The material donation was not obligatory, and from the XVI century. Canceled to avoid abuse. Diplomas confirming the indulgence have long come out of everyday life and did not constitute its entity.
Marriage (Wedding, marriage) - the sacrament of the creation of Christian
A married union and grace to create a family, a "small church", where spouses help rescue each other and grow children in the spirit of church teaching. The cohabitation of a church marriage is regarded as an unconditional sin associated with the crop.
The marriage is conceived as an exclusively monogamous and not allowing any violation of loyalty. At his opinion, the church imposes a lot of conditions relating to, for example, the faith of the marriage, their confessional affiliation, intention to accept the children given by God (Orthodoxy and Catholicism prohibit any fertility control, except for the natural, provided for by natural fruit and non-fruit cycles), kinship and its degree, The presence or absence of vobs of celibacy, former marriages, etc. Some obstacles can be canceled by the decision of the church authorities. Otherwise, marriage will be invalid, only his visibility will remain and the church will have the right to officially declare his insolvency, absence.
The question of divorce the Catholic Church solves unequivocally negatively, recognizing the marriage of the unborn. It is possible only to recognize it invalid if it was proved that at the time of the commission was incompatible with him, or permission to separate accommodation (travel) without the right to host or new marriages. Orthodoxy assumes that marriage can become invalid and after its actual conclusion, and carries out a divorce for which a church procedure is necessary and serious grounds. Its obtaining is considered as a measure forced and involving repentance. The number of repeated marriages is limited. For the clergy here, the second marriage is impossible.
Marriage as a choice of a path in itself is not considered mandatory for everyone (it is required for those who want to conclude a marital union). The stay in deliberately selected celibacy and chastity is considered as a special pious choice and is often accompanied by a special church blessing and affiliation of vows. This special form of religious life is historically even ancient monastic.
Priesthood (priestly ordination) implies construction
A person in a spiritual san to make the authorities to make worship, instruct believers and manage them (see Fig. 39).
The power of the clergy is considered to be arising from the high priests of Christ. The clergy, first of all, the bishops is understood as the basis and rod of the church, the criterion of its presence (the principle "where the bishop, there is a church"). The power of the clergy, embodied in the earth's forms, has a supernatural essence. With its understanding, the models resembling the "Agreement theory" proposed to describe the nature of power in society with such philosophers of the new time as T. Gobbs (1588-1679), Sh.L. Montesquieu (1689-1755) and J.-H. Rousse (1712-1778) when people simply delegate their own authorities to someone who will exercise power from their behalf.
The most important element of the ordination is the preservation of the apostolic succession, without which the priesthood in Orthodoxy and Catholicism is unthinkable and which is understood as the preservation of the continuous chain of legal orders, ascending as a result of the Apostles, and from them to Christ himself who committed the first sacrament of this kind and is the Heavenly High Priest.
In addition to Big orders (in deacon, priests and bishops) exist Small (in the lower liturgical ranks).
The sacrament is performed only by the bishop. The center of the Sacrament is the laying on their hands on the head of the candidate with the pronouncement of the words. The latter must pass all previous degrees of priesthood. Orthodoxy and Catholicism admit only men to the priesthood, categorically excluding the priesthood of women.
In Catholicism, with the ordination, the priest brings celibacy (lifelong vow of celibacy), but on the Catholics-Uniats this requirement does not apply. In Orthodoxy, this practice is rare. In addition, in almost all Orthodox churches, a candidate for bishops should be a monk, and therefore automatically carry monastic celibacy.
The sacrament of life, although the priest can officially ban rituals. But even the excuseal priest retains potential priesthood and when taking again, the church in the Lono does not need it in the new ordination. Catholicism emphasizes the possibility of committing priesthoods in special cases (for example, above the dying) even by an exclusive priest.
The priesthood changes the status of a person and the whole image of his life, although in itself does not make a person holy. The ordained undertakes to wear a special classic clothing (it cannot be confused with liturgical clouds for worship). In Orthodoxy, this is primarily Conditioner и Row (in Catholicism - cassock, Constructively resembling a contractor). Casual headdress - Skucian (High hat, in Catholicism it corresponds to a black beret).
Cobbing (Impression, Last Anointing, Patient Anointing)
Performed over sick and dying. Reports spiritual forces to transfer the disease, the forgiveness of repeated sins, for some reason, for good reasons, not reported to confession, maybe, but not necessarily - recovery (only if it is considered by God as useful for the rescue of the soul). It can be combined with confession and last communion, for which the church requires inviting the priest as soon as possible and faster, although this is the only sacrament that can be done under forced necessity and unconscious. Non-priest to the dying is equal to the spiritual murder. The basis for cubization is a serious illness, in Catholicism usually admission to the sacrament is more selective than in Orthodoxy. The basis of the sacrament is the anointing of the body with a patient with consecrated butter (bye) with the pronunciation of prayers. Cutting can be repeated.
In addition to the sacraments there are other rituals, sometimes very important.
First of all, you need to mention rituals related to death. These are also prayers for the outcome of the soul, reading over the dying or even for themselves for themselves in the presence of a threat, the funeral rituals (position in the coffin, body posting in the temple, funeral, the burial of the priest of the body, Panir - under certain conditions, the church deprives unworthy honors; in Catholicism There is a special funeral mass, in everyday life is not quite correctly referred to Requiem According to the first word of her text, which means "restoration"), prayers, crosses, consecration (dedication to the objects to God for direct or indirect service in the glory of it), the expulsion of unclean spirits (the person, exorcism, spell prayers), the blessing of believers by the clergy.
Of particular importance is paid to the consecrated (holy) water, which is attributed to the function of the outflow of unclean spirits and purification from evil thoughts.
Monastic posture is the necessary ritual of adoption in a monk, which can have different degrees, levels. Monasticism implies three vows: poverty, chastity, obedience. The monk undertakes to wear special monastic clothing, the composition of which correlates with the degree of monastics. In Catholicism, the features of monastic clothes are related to the specifics of the monastic order.
A number of periods and days of year are lean when a restriction is prescribed in food and entertainment with the enhancement of repentance of prayers and reflections.
Orthodox Christianity condemns an imbalance with an emphasis only on the food side of the post (with the transformation of it into a diet) or only on spiritual. According to the famous expression "Post is not a televon, but the sin", his goal is not to exhaust the body as an end in itself, but repentance and spiritual update.
At first periods there are features in the commission of worship. During Pona Prelimal Great post Of particular importance is the last Holy Week, Starting Verbonda Sunday (Holiday of memories of the solemn entrance of Christ in Jerusalem as a Messiah on the eve of suffering and death). A number of special rituals are confined to this week. In Catholicism, a week preceding the Verbnoe Sunday was traditionally special importance, a peculiar great dongydel was formed. The allocation of Fedundelia began to be left only in recent decades.
An important part of the ritual and spiritual life of orthodox Christianity is icon. Images, according to church archeology, were used from the first centuries of Christianity (see Fig. 28 and 29). Over time, the practice of icon is complicated and deepened. After the era of the iconocological disputes, which ended with the VII of the Ecumenical Cathedral, theology of iconic was developed.
Removing the icons, according to the Christian doctrine, is addressed to the primordialities of the depicted and in the end of God himself as a source of any holiness, it increases the glorification of God himself, and therefore is not idolatry.
The question of the depicting of God (one of the main arguments of opponents of icon-compliance) is solved mainly on the basis of the fact that God the Son embodies, which means it became visible, Christ is depicting due to its real incarnation. Thus, the denial of the legitimacy of the reverence of the icon turns out to be indirectly in the reality of the realization of the Son's God, i.e. The resurrection of exercises, which in the era of the first universal cathedrals were rejected by the Church as heretical. A detailed substantiation of the legitimacy of the iconization gave sv. John Damaskin (OK. 650-749).
Other faces of the Trinity, God Father and God of the Holy Spirit, are pictures on icons only symbolically, especially since the Bible is mentioned about their phenomenon in certain images, although without incarnation. In the same way, the angels are also pictured and having a flesh, the wings are a symbol of their "speed", the ability to move out of time and space.
Saints are worthy of decent images due to the fact that they are involved in Divine Grace not only with soul, but also the body (see Fig. 38).
Act of negligence or desecration icons affects God. At the same time, the church warns from distorted forms of icon, when their true place in liturgical life may be forgotten, in particular when the fetishization of the icons or attitude towards them is more important than, for example, to the sacraments.
In the practice of the Orthodox Church, the iconostasis is used, which can be viewed not simply as an ordered composition from the icons, and as a large icon (in Catholicism, the altar part sometimes also closed, for this a special curtain could be used).
The iconostasis has a strict structure consisting of a vertical axis dividing it on symmetric parts, and horizontal series (ranks). In the center of each row there is a certain icon. The rows of iconostasses include:
– local, The center of which are Tsarist Gate - Central entrance to the altar;
– festive, Including icons with plots of events of church holidays; Deesus His semantic center is the icon of Christ with the side images of the Virgin and John the Baptist, addressed to him (Deesus);
– prophetic, containing images of the prophets of the Old Testament;
– French Containing images of the "Praws" - Adam, ancient Old Testament Righteous.
May meet Passionate (images of the scenes of the sufferings of Christ) Saint (Icons of the fathers of the church) and some others.
In the Catholic practice, the image was usually focused on a certain sequence, behind the throne, i.e. Rather, behind the altar part, and not before it. Such a facility is called Retable Replaced superstructure. They could also achieve great difficulty and height.
Icon is created according to certain rules and is not identical to a secular image. In Christianity, there are several traditions of creating images, the largest of them may be called Eastern и Western. They, in turn, have a number of stages and irregularities.
The eastern set of rules (canon) is more strict and involves greater use of conditionally symbolic details like conditionally discreet poses, using the reverse perspective as a symbol that the icon depicted on the icon is from eternity, Nimba as a sign of saintness of holiness, etc. Saints tend to portray in the "transformed" form that overcoming the limits of earthly existence. The most famous icon painter of the Christian East can be called a canonized church Andrei Rublev (End of the XIV century - 1430), who wrote a famous icon Trinity.
Western images are often more realistic and have some features. At certain periods (for example, in the Renaissance), some artists lost the feeling of the border between the secular visual arts and the creation of sacred images, which caused a negative reaction from the Church. In the West, the romance and gothic images, icons written El Greco (1541-1614).
Christian cultivated life also implies reverence of relics, i.e. First of all, the relics preserved the remains of saints ("non-money" of the relics does not imply complete body preservation, usually we are talking about its fragments). It emphasizes that the holiness concerns not only the soul, but in a certain way and the bodies. The practice of preserving and reading the bodies of the saints is quite old, first of all sought to preserve the body of martyrs. The relics are stored in special storage facilities (cancer) are set in special vessels, placed in the plates of altars. Removing may be surrounded by objects belonging to the holy. Finding the relics may be the basis for the recognition of a person holy, although it is not an absolutely prerequisite for this.
For elementary presentation of the progress of the liturgy, we give the general scheme of the Orthodox and Catholic service (there are no variations related to holidays and special services).
In practice, the Orthodox Church is most often used by two options for liturgies (St. Vasily of the Great and St. John of Zlatoust), having non-profitable differences. During the liturgy, each period is performed, for which the incense is used - fragrant resin. The sermon can read before the blessing or after reading the Gospel.
Let us give the general order of the Orthodox liturgy.
Includes reading the clergy of initial prayers in the altar, the vestments with the corresponding prayers and cooking on the satellite of bread and wine, an important part of which is to remove particles from bread - prosphoras. Completed with a special prayer.
Great Slav ("Blessed Kingdom ...").
The great objects (a special prayer genre, containing a number of statures, is very common in the Christian East, contains a number of different stages).
Three antifones (antifones are called texts that are squeezed by two choirs alternately). After each antifone - small objects.
Small entrance with the removal of the gospel of the altar.
The prayer of the trisword (the secret prayer of the priest, read during the singing of the "trisvyatoy" ("holy ...").
Apostle (reading for this day a passing from the Bible).
Huge singing of allyluia.
Reading the gospel for this day.
Forguable (reinforced) eagles.
Sectius about the dead.
The objects on the announced, prayer about the announced.
Liturgy is true.
- Two objects.
- Cheruvim Song, preparing a great entrance.
- Great entrance - the solemn transfer of the holy gifts from the altar to the throne.
Preparation for presence.
- Suitable objects as preparation for communion and participation in the Eucharistic victim.
- Symbol of faith.
- Prayer, beginning with the words "worthy and righteous ..." and the ending singing "holy, holy, holy ..." (in the Roman Messe, as well as Lutheran and Anglican worship services, this fragment is called Prefacise).
- Next, a quiet readable priestly prayer with the words of establishment.
- Epiklesis - Calling of the Holy Spirit for gifts. This prayer contains petitions for living and dead.
Cooking for communion.
- Sweating objects with the mention of the presented holy gifts.
- Prayer "Father Our".
- Communion of the clergy in the altar.
- Communion of the laity.
Thanks and let go.
- Thank you prayer.
- removal of the cross for kissing.
As a Roman liturgy (Mass), we give a ritual with an ancient origin, finally approved in the XVI century. After the Tident Cathedral (referred to Thirtent Mesca). He was accustomed unchanged until the 1960s. The late new version is its reduction with the exception of some moments, for example, the initial prayer of the clergy on the stages of the altar and reading the second gospel at the end of the service, with a strong cutting of the canon.
During some MES, special hymns are added - sequence. The most famous are Dies IRAE. (Anger day) for clock messes and Stabat Mater. (The mournful mother stood) for the feast of the seven sorrows of Our Lady.
The service is preceded by the leading of the clergy in the sacristy with special prayers. It begins with a solemn exit to the altar, often with the crosses. Mass can move or read. Naraspov can pronounce separate parts (for example, the Gospel). Before starting the solemn Mass, water binding and sprinkling of holy water with singing can be performed.
We present the general procedure for the Catholic Mass in its version, which was determined after the Tident Cathedral (* parts were noted, liquidated by liturgical reforms of 1960-1970s., ** - changed or significantly abbreviated due to the last).
Preparatory prayer on steps before the throne *.
Inlet psalm *.
Paint prayer (confession of sins) of a priest *.
The submissive prayer of the serving clergy and the laymen (neither the first nor the second is not replaced by the confession!) **.
Permissive prayer and brief prayer in the form of a dialogue.
The priest rises in steps to the throne and reads a special prayer.
Inlet chactoping (introit), reflecting the peculiarity of the service of this day. Kyrie Eleison. ("Lord have mercy")**.
The anthem "Glory to the Vointer ...".
Prayer of the day (collector, Cathedral, i.e. General, Prayer), dedicated to the peculiarities of the service of this day, in particular, for the holiday or memories of the Holy.
The Word Service of God.
Apostle (reading a fragment of the Bible defined for this day).
Gradual (prayer of steps) *.
Prayer before reading the Gospel.
Reading the fragment of the Gospel defined for the day.
Preaching (traditionally uttered from a special high ammon), preceded by the procession.
Reading or singing the faith symbol.
Basic part or Mass of the Eucharistic Victim **.
Option for gifts.
- Removing the cover with the cooked empty bowl.
- Preparation and caution of bread with prayer.
- Filling the bowl of wine with a small amount of water with prayer.
- Cup of the bowl with prayer.
- Reading several quiet prayers, often with each.
- Omotion of the hands of the priest with reading Psalm.
- Quiet prayer for the adoption of the victim.
- Appeal to the people and prayer for the acceptance of the sacrifice Mass (this part in meaning and function corresponds to the Eastern Ancestion, but more compressed in time).
- Several quiet prayers.
- singing or reading the preflection (prayer, which starts with the words "truly adequately and righteous ..."), concluded by anthem Sanctus. ("Holy, Holy, Holy ...").
2. Eucharist canon.
The main part of the Mass, among the prayers, contains the appeal of the Holy Spirit for the prepared gifts (epiklesis) and the pronouncement of the words of the establishment, ascending to the words of Christ at the Last Evening. The names of the saints, especially the Virgin, are pronounced prayers for church authorities, for those present, for living and deceased. Traditionally, Canon was read by the priest quietly.
Combination or meal of the victim.
- Prayer "Father Our".
- Quiet prayer priest.
- Prayer for the connection of wine with a particle of bread.
- Prayer "Lamb of God" ( Agnus dei).
- Prayer for the gift of the world.
- Prayers of the priest and communion of a priest.
- Reading the submissive prayer and permitting prayer of the priest *.
- Prayer "Lord, I'm not fit ...".
- Mijan communion.
- Several thankful post-involved prayers and prayers for cleansing the sacred vessels, some of which are associated with the content of the worship of a particular day.
Scope of the people.
- Word leave.
- Prayer of the priest about the worst worship *.
- The blessing of the people.
- Reading the "second gospel" *.
- Then the clergy is removed from the altar.
It can be noted that the structure and composition of the prayer Roman liturgy is generally close enough to the eastern one. With its formation, some elements of liturgical practices of Christians who lived in the Gallean provinces were borrowed.
Christianity has its own symbolism.
The main symbol of Christianity is the cross. Orthodox Christianity requires his reverence as an instrument of rescue man, consecrated by the death of God and illustrious by the resurrection of the latter.
There are different configurations of the cross (four-pin, eight-spin, etc.). The cross the temple buildings are crowned with the cross, it is on the neck (native), is the attribute of the clergy's robe, they are autumn (cross-sign), and also provide him with acts of honor - the kissing of the cross, the crankshaft in front of it, take-off during the procession.
There is also a cult of the cross, which served as a crucifix tool (in honor of his find, the acquisition was established by the Holiday of the Cross's Exaltation). In many temples, its fragments are stored. In the era of the Reformation, it was often exposed to a later origin of part of such fragments, however, the church emphasizes that the very presence of sincere faith brings grace even if the relic was unnecessary.
In Catholicism, abbreviation signs are common. These are the abbreviated names of Jesus, Mary and St. Joseph, some key phrases, as well as abbreviated names of monastic orders added to the name of the monk.
Catholicism widely uses the symbol of the heart of Jesus as a focus of his love.
The image of prayer rosary (rosary, flattering), lace with beads for counting prayers is often found.
Non-traditional and monophimitis
In addition to the three branches of Christianity - Catholicism, Orthodoxy and Protestantism (see Ch. 7) - there are a number of communities, for various reasons, early separated and formed their communities.
If you briefly summarize their teachings, then you can note:
- denial of the divinity of Christ, in particular Arianism, Named named founder, presbyter Aria, according to which Christ is created, and his divinity is given to him during creation;
- the doctrine that Christ was later only adopted by God, - adectionism;
- the doctrine of the presence of two nature in Christ, but one common will - monofelitis; - the doctrine of the absence of human nature in Christ - Monophizite.
Of course, among them are primarily native and monophysites.
Non-traditional appeared in V c. Thanks to the activities of Constantinople Patriarch Nesory (428-431), who did not agree with the prevailing teaching on the nature of Christ and the smaller Divine nature. This teaching arose in the atmosphere Christological disputes (discussions about the nature of Christ) I thousand Christianity.
He taught that the human and divine nature in Christ is divided and, for example, did not affect the suffering of the Divine nature. Thus, the uniform person of Christ disintegrates, and Virgo Maria could not be called the Virgin, because God is impossible to give birth.
The doctrine of non-traditional was condemned to the Ephesian Ecumenical Cathedral (431), gave the momentum to the growth of the reverence of the Virgin. Nestorian communities are, in particular, the Assyrian Church of the East, headed by the Patriarch with the title "Catholicos" (equivalent to the title of Patriarch). This church recognizes only the first two universal cathedrals.
Monophiziteness adheres to the point of view, according to which Christ did not have human nature. It arose to a considerable measure as an extreme response to non-traditional. In V c. His propagandists spoke Archimandrite Evtichiy and bishop Diosk who spoke about the absorption of the human nature of the Divine, as a result of which only one remains. A variant of monophimitis is the doctrine of the uniform nature of Christ, who stays in a single person.
This teaching in 449 recognized the cathedral convened in Ephesus. A sharp protest against his activities was expressed by a representative of the Roman Pope and he was declared illegal, non-canonical (as a result, he received a nickname of "robbery"). Then the monophimitis was condemned to the message of Pope Lion. I (440-461) and the Chalkidon Universal Cathedral (451).
Part of the Christian communities, adhered to monophimitis, are referred to as Dahlkidon (oriental). This is primarily the Coptic Church and the Syrian Church, who do not recognize the Chalkidon Cathedral and everything following him (see Fig. 43).
These include the Armenian-Gregorian Church, although its views are in many ways are not direct monophimite. Already to V c. She began to clothe. The rejection of the ideas of the Chalkidon Cathedral was due to the differences in the understanding of theological terminology, rooted in Greek culture with its characteristics of thinking. In the future, the distinction emerged, obviously, and the linguistic nature was entrenched, and the Armenian Church became a separate community, closely related to the national-cultural self-awareness of the Armenian people.
The church is headed by the Patriarch with the title of Catholicos. His residence is in Echmiadzin (Armenia). Armenian worship combines a number of East Byzantine and Western features (for example, a game on the organ) is performed in ancient and the Armenian language. Part of Armenian-Grigorian concluded a cult with the Catholic Church (Armenian Catholics).
At present, attempts are made to mitigate the disagreements of monophysites with orthodox Christians by clarifying disagreements that arose due to incomprehension of the understanding of theological concepts.
Questions and tasks for self-test
How can you agree on the monotheistic nature of Christianity with the teaching about the Trinity, honoring the saints, the presence of icons and verbal items?
What are the main periods can be allocated in the history of Christianity? What events (individuals) share these periods?
How is the doctrine of communication of the saints with the practice of prayer for the deceased?
What features of similarities and differences have, in your opinion, the Eastern and Roman liturgy?
Could Christianity not use the aicast of antique philosophy in theology? Could it do without theology in general and what appeal would be a Christian religion in this case?
Compare the function and value of the clergy in Christianity and other religions.
Why orthodox Christianity is a sacred legend?
What liturgical elements and the principles of His Organization Christianity preserves from Judaism? What appears new and why? How is this new associated with the peculiarities of Christian creed?
Is it possible to consider the resurrection of Christ an analogue of "dying and resurrect gods" of pagan religions?
What are the Christian tricks, the reasons (remote and immediate) and the consequences (also coming and distant) death and resurrection of Christ?
What is common in all Christian sacraments? What signs, in your opinion, determine the sacrament and distinguish it from other Christian rituals?
Who is the committee of liturgy?
Why do the sacraments occupy the highest step in the hierarchy of Christian rituals?
What is the role of Christianity in the formation of culture of different countries and peoples, including Western Europe, the Slavic world, Russia?
What fundamentally distinguishes the Christian liturgy from the synagoal service in Judaism? And from the existing service in the Jerusalem temple?
Is it possible, in your opinion, implement the ethical demands of Christianity? If so, under what conditions?
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