Yandex Dzen.

Ecumenism - what is his true goal

Multi-charted Russia over the centuries was subjected to rebellion and wars, the purpose of which was the destruction of our power. Not only extensive territories have always attracted lovers to get used to someone else's account, but also the people themselves. Or rather - the desire to end with us, with a mysterious Russian soul, so incomprehensible, stubborn and non-dangling.

Flashing about the need to unite religion

Today, the struggle for the souls of people has gained particularly flawed forms. Under the "noble" slogans of universal peace and love, the idea of ​​association under the flag of a single religion is progress.

Ecumenism - the so-called movement on the unification of all Christian denominations in a single . Idea inspirers seek to erase the face between different confessions, bringing them to a certain general "denominator."

Christianity today

The most numerous are Orthodoxy, Catholicism, Protestantism. Despite the fact that they all recognize Christ and the Bible, the valuables system each of the denominations differ.


It believes Christ the creator of the Church, recognizing the greatest value of God of God . Since the adoption of baptism in Russia, the data of the commandment and evidence of the apostles were honored. These values ​​are adhered to today our church.


In Catholicism, everything is different .The main "acting person" and the continued authority is Pope, which is considered the governor of the Lord on Earth. The Catholic Holy 14th century Katharina Siena in a conversation about Pape says the interlocutor: " Even if he was the devil in the flesh, I should not bring chapter against him " . The word Pope law, even if it contradicts the word of the Lord.

Vices are considered as a natural attraction of a person to evil. Such natural is considered good. Fight with evil, passions or cultivate in the soul of mercy and love - this, unlike Orthodoxy, does not have Catholics. Catholicism does not exclude the purgatory, but leaves the right to indulgence - the intake of sin immediately after confession. True, a person imposes a certain punishment to which he must be subjected. This is usually either a pilgrimage to shrines, or a visit to certain temples.


It is the most "compelling" and "flexible" for believers Christians . The main authority of Protestants is the Bible, which is perceived as the voice of the Lord. And everyone has the right to interpret it at its discretion - as it understands. It is enough for a person to "believe" to be justified before God for any sins. No effort to redeeming sins is required.

Ecumenism offers to erase the face between these such different approaches to faith. For what?

Unlimited power - the purpose of ecumenism

Mondialysis is the creation of a single super-state on the planet with a single government. This is the real purpose of supporters of the association of churches.

What do you think, representatives of which country (which countries) will enter into this government? The answer lies on the surface.

"Do not bow under someone else's yoke with incorrect, what communication of righteousness with lawlessness? What is common with the light with dirt? What is the compatibility of the temple of God with idols? " - Two thousand years ago, the Apostle Paul was warned about such events (2 Cor. 6, 14-16).

In the modern world there are quite few phenomena that would cause so contradictory assessments as ecumenism. The spectrum of human reactions here varies from enthusiastic calls to an extreme degree of denial. In this article we will try to figure out who these are echinos.

Prayer Symbol of Faith: text with strokes, listen audio

What is ecumenism

On our planet more than two billion Christians. They all believe in one God, but the gospel can interpret in different ways. This was the reason for the existence of various denominations and churches. However, some Christians believe that all Christian religions need to be united into a single church, with general principles and dogmas.

Speaking with simple words, ecumenism is the ideology of allial unity.

The basis of this flow is the recognition of the Triune God. Dogmatic worldviews Ecumenists are based on the same postulate: "Jesus Christ is our Lord and Savior."

Origin of the word

The name of the movement comes from the Greek word "Oikoumene", or "Ekumn", which means the world, the universe.

The meaning of the concept

For the first time, this concept was offered in 1937 theologies of the Princeton theological seminary. This term is used to designate the interfaith initiative, encouraging more active joint work between Christians.

The Christian understanding is used in the meaning of cooperation between the Catholic and Orthodox Church. In the modern world, ecumenical ideas are understood as the ideas of a religious and philosophical course of a liberal nature, positioning the association of all Christian denominations in one.

Ecumenists who are

What is an ecumenical movement

What is myself

This movement is the community of people taking advantage of the combining of different Christian trends in one religion. The most active propagandists of such theories are representatives of the Protestant Church.

Historical reference

Even during the Reformation in Germany, temples were common, where the worship services were practiced by various confessions alternately. But still before the onset of the 20th century, various denominations have been configured towards each other rather opposition.

In 1918, the first worldwide missionary conference was held in Edinburgh, which presented denominations agreed to go closer. At the beginning of 1920, the Metropolitan of the whole world was released by the Metropolitan of the whole world by the Metropolitan Metropolitan, in Constantinople, in which Metropolitan was favorably referred to the idea of ​​rapprochement of various branches of Christianity. He proposed to form a "society of churches" and adopt the approval of a single calendar of Christian holidays.

In the summer of the same year, Patriarchate Constantinople participates in the Geneva Conference, considering the principles in accordance with which the churches will be carried out. The next important milestone was the "Divine Congress", conducted in 1923 in Constantinople.


The participation in it was accepted by five local Orthodox churches:

  • Constantinople;
  • Cyprus;
  • Serbian;
  • Elaladskaya;
  • Romanian.

Congress has established changes in the church calendar and the appidentiality for the clergy. Some of these churches made changes.

At the same time, in 1948, a "unattopional meeting" was held, in which representatives of such churches were attended as:

  • Antiochine;
  • Alexandria;
  • Georgian;
  • Serbian;
  • Romanian;
  • Bulgarian;
  • Greek;
  • Polish;
  • Russian.

The resolution of the meeting was indicated by a categorical protest of these denominations and the refusal to participate in the meeting. However, in ten years, Metropolitan Krutitsky and Kolomensky, Nikolai, this decision was actually canceled. Patriarch declared a change in position regarding ecumenism in the Orthodox Church.

The main reason for this was the desire to preach among the nonsense. After the appointment of Metropolitan Nicodemia (Rotov), ​​the position of the Chairman of the Meeting for the Russian Church has occurred a period of active participation in ecumenical activities.

In 1948, the "World Council" took place. And in 1961, some Christian denominations joined this advice, giving this movement a new impetus.

Currently, the World Council sees its role in keeping and maintaining the ecumenical ideology.

This made it possible to take as proper some principal for orthodox things:

  • intercursory services;
  • conducting prayer and discussion interfaith groups;
  • holding meetings and church festivals for representatives of different religions;
  • The possibility of the provision of church theological advisory assistance.

In addition to the classic movement of ecumenists in the modern world, there are also separate groups working in church communities in order to maintain and strengthen the tolerant interfaith relations.

Simple words

Causes of occurrence

The essence of ecumenical ideology is most fully reflected in the prayer from the Gospel of John:

"Yes, there will be all one; As you, Father, in me, and I am in you, so they will be in us one. "

(In.17: 21)

The adoption of this idea, the desire for the leveling of interfaith retail and were the main causes of this movement in a global scale. Along with this, we can note the fact that in Europe the beginning of the 20th century there were many Protestant churches. Most rituals and traditions in Protestants have a lightweight option, which provides closer contact with each other and achieving mutual understanding.

Many Christian Missionary Organizations does not belong to any confession, just to believe in God and be a Christian, which also contributes to unification. In addition, in the prevailing, the Europeans thought about the need to unite the face of the new enemy.

Purpose of Movement

According to scientists, the main purpose of this direction can be considered not the visible unity of all church organizations, but the purification of Christian denominations from lies and sin. Restoration of dogmatic faith, as well as positions that determine the spiritual life of a Christian such as they are given in the Holy Scripture.

Organization's activities

The World Council of Churches (WTS) consists of about 350 churches - representatives of 120 countries of the world.

The members of the WTS belong to a number of Orthodox churches (ROC is also a member of the Council), 20 Protestant denominations, including:

  • Anglican;
  • Lutheran;
  • Calvinist;
  • methodical;
  • Independent.

Ecumenism in the Orthodox Church

Of the board, the Georgian and Bulgarian church came out. The Council is managed by the Assembly, which is convened every seven years. The Assembly elected the Presidium, which consists of eight presidents, the Secretary-General of the Council, whose duties include the general leadership of the Council between meetings and the General Committee, which consists of 150 people. Also at the next meeting of the Assembly, the further policy of the WTS is determined and the results of the implementation of previously approved programs are summed up.

The Council cannot force his members to any decision. Each denomination has the right to accept or not, or another decision of the Council. The main activity of the WCC is to establish live contacts between different confessions, discussing issues related to the achievement of unity.

In addition, this is the implementation of the accompanying programs of various denominations when the conflict situation occurs. The organization is sent to the delegations of priests to conflicting parties, whose tasks include reconciliation and justice.

Much attention is paid to the situation in the Middle East and the need for peaceful settlement of conflicts. The Council regularly holds conferences, seminars, meetings, thematic weeks, intercursting services, prayer and discussion groups and many other activities to achieve their goals.

Prize of the Ecumenical Jury

The ecumenical jury notes movies affecting the sharp topics of social orientation. The jury of this jury is present on the thirty festivals of the world, occupying the position of interfaith parity.


Prize description

The award is an independent award approved by Christian Music Music, journalists, critics. With awards, the artistic value of film curtains is also taken into account, and the presence of a plot affecting the issues of a religious, social, humanistic nature. The jury includes six members who are elected in the Catholic and Protestant film centers.

Such a jury works at many world festivals, including:

  • Cannes Film Festival;
  • Berlin Film Festival;
  • Festival in Locarno;
  • Montreal World Film Festival;
  • Film Festival in Karlovy Vary, etc.

As a rule, members of the jury are advertised and promoted film stations awarded prize in their countries.

History of awards ceremony

For the first time, the ecumenical jury began its work in 1973 at the festival in Locarno. The ideological inspirer was Moritz de Hoodene, striving to attract the Christian public to participate in the film festivals. The next jury worked in 1974 in Cannes. The modern film festival is already impossible to imagine without such a jury, it became its integral part. In 1989, the Orthodox Church took part in the meeting of the Universal Jury in the meeting of the International Film Festival in Moscow.

Famous laureates

For the history of the premium, films from different countries received a reward. These are mainly representatives of Europe: Italy, Germany, Poland.

There are unique cases. The only person who received the reward three times became Andrei Tarkovsky.

And the only director's woman, besides the Muslim country, became Samir Makhmalbaf. From among the non-Christian countries that received the award, Japan and China can be allocated. Also in 2009, Larsu von Trier was first awarded the antipode awards for the film "Antichrist".


Ecumenism in religions

For centuries, the religion, for centuries, occupied a denial position in relation to the ideas of an ecumenical type.

In Orthodoxy

Orthodox priests who participated in a unatascalized meeting, expressed a sharply negative assessment of this movement. At that time, they were supported by representatives of the Foreign Russian Orthodox Church.

Today, Orthodoxy is one of the most conservative branches of Christianity, although representatives of the ROC are ready for an interfaith dialogue, despite the statement that only the Orthodox faith has a complete Divine grace.

In such an interpretation it looks like asking other confessions: it is necessary to repent and return to the Lono of True Religion.

According to representatives of the Moscow Patriarchate, currently the ecumenical flow is in a state of crisis, the cause of which are Orthodox conservatives. At the last meeting of the World Council, representatives of all Orthodox local churches made a statement that the fundamental changes are needed in the activities of the WCC and the entire movement.

It takes time, and changes in the convergence of theological positions, the establishment of a dialogue between believers is not. However, the Orthodox public is gradually begins to come to understand that the dialogue between different confessions is vital, otherwise there is one option - the war.

Orthodox patriots have published an open letter against ecumenism ...

In Catholicism

The official position of the Catholic Church is based on the fact that it positions itself as the only Christian religion, which has the full true faith. The main task of Catholics is the spread of papal authorities and multiplying the number of adherents of their faith.

The Roman Catholic Church was not and is not a member of the Council. But takes part in some events. Catholics are currently actively involved in the ecumenical dialogue, trying to be tolerant. However, they always try to take a position above the opponent, and not next to him, and always associate any of their activities with their own missionary initiative.

Ecumenical jury

In Protestantia

Over time, the "theory of branches" appeared in the Protestant medium, which was assumed that all Christian religions are branches of one tree. And also the "Theory of Dogmatov", in accordance with which the fundamental postulates of creeds were recognized as important, and the secondary were left to the personal discretion of the believer. As the continuation of these trends, an ecumenical ideology appeared, which implies either a syncretic combination of denominations, or finding a certain minimum fragment of religious teaching, in common to all.

In general, Protestants take the existing separation of Christianity. Unity in this case can be expressed in achieving agreement in the fundamental issues of creed. For other theological issues, they provide representatives of other confessions freedom of choice, considering that "unity does not mean uniformity."

How Protestants live in Georgia - JamNews

In sects and other confessions

In addition to major denominations, various religious groups and sects have joined the ecumenical flow:

  • Mormons;
  • Jehovah witnesses;
  • Assyrian Church of the East, etc.

For many religious communities, it is an opportunity to establish a dialogue, achieve agreements. However, there are opponents expressing against the ecumenical ideas categorical protest. For example, the Orthodox youth movement "Sobira". His representatives defend the position of the "Unified Most High", the inadmissibility of contacts with the "nonsense" and the dogmatic purity of Orthodoxy.

ECHR accepted a complaint from 395 Russian communities "Jehovah

Opinions of church figures

In one of the interviews, Patriarch Kirill said that information openness and careful study of the issue are needed:

"We have people really know anything about ecumenia. Hence another misconception: as if we are in the ecumenical movement by Orthodoxy. So, in order to evaluate the activities of Russian theologians participating in the ecumenical movement to understand what the ecumenical movement is needed by full publicity. "

Categorical assessments of this activity, Patriarch does not express, trying in his judgments to occupy a tolerant position.


At the same time, in 1972, Patriarch, Alexandrian Nikolai VI, was expressed along with other Orthodox priests completely definitely against this idea, saying that this is not just a heresy, and the "supernunity", directed against the Orthodox people, representing the greatest danger to him .

Representatives of the Roman Catholic Church occupy an active position in the ecumenical dialogue and try to talk about their loyalty, tolerance and the desire to unite with other denominations on the parity principle.

Video about the meaning of the concept

From this video you will learn about what ecumenism is.

Ecumenism and its place in the modern world.

  • What does the word ecumenism mean?
  • Who are Ecumenists?

You will learn about this from our article.


The topic of our today's conversation is ecumenism and its place in the modern world. What does the word "ecumenism" mean?

- The concept of "ecumenism" comes from the Greek word "Okuman", which means "inhabitable universe." After his occurrence, Christianity, thanks to his extraordinary spiritual beauty and the truth, and most importantly, the help of God, managed to defeat paganism and conquer the greatest Roman Empire. This empire can probably be compared with modern USA - the same huge and overwhelming. The preaching of the apostles turned out to be stronger than pagan culture, ideology, religion. Shortly after its occurrence, Christianity became in the full sense of the word "ecumenical", that is, the world, universal religion far overlooking the borders of the Empire. Today, Christianity is spread over the whole globe, but unfortunately, it is not the only religion in the world.

But we know about ecumenia and in another of its meaning: as a liberal dialogue of religions, as a relative recognition of the truth and other spiritual ways and beliefs in addition to Christian. With such ecumenism, the church has already encountered the first days of existence. In essence, the entire religious life of the Roman Empire was ecumenical.

Yes, indeed, the ancient Christians, the first martyrs were offered ecumenism just in our present, modern meaning. In the torture cameras, they often demanded not to abandon Christ, but recognize that all religions are more or less equal. Indeed, in the representation of the Roman citizen, the empire stands above any private interests, it unites not only the peoples and their cultures, but also the faith of all its peoples. And Christianity was suggested to enter along with - and on equal terms - with pagan religions. For Christians, it was completely excluded, because, as Sacred Scripture says, "Wsi Bosy Language Units" (Psalm 95: 5), that is, all the gods of pagan peoples - demons. The ideas of the Empire about the Divine were distorted, they are distorted and in our time so much that they lead their adepts to very severe spiritual consequences. In many religions now, as in antiquity, bloody and even human sacrifices are performed. In many religions, there are even such terrible sacrifices. All in the memory of the recent martyrdom of the three monks of the optical desert: they were sacrificed. The number six hundred sixty-six six hundred six hundred six hundred six hundred six hundred six hundred six hundred six hundred and six hundred six hundred six hundred. It is not at all by chance ... And although we are trying to convince us that the killer was loner, it is simply frozen.

- When Christians say that they can oppose all this to the pressure and the heat of evil their teachings - as an absolute truth that is Christ, - they are accused of undemocraticness, non-liberality, income. They are accused of being too narrowing the world, persevene in their "cave" wildness and generally hopelessly behind life. And this, this "narrow" truth is opposed to ecumenism ... How is it still to characterize ecumenism in its modern meaning?

- First, about "undemocraticness." The word "democracy" (from the Greek "Demos" - the people and "Krato" - I hold in our authority, manage) means the power of the people. In ancient times, the democratic form of government did not think without genuine, hot patriotism; the protection of the Motherland was considered glorious and honorable. Nowadays the word "democracy" is most often used in the opposite sense. For today's Russian democrats, being a patriot - retrograde. However, in the true sense, the word "democracy" cannot be used in relation to the society opposing patriotism. Therefore, the society in which we live should be called pseudo-octic, like many modern pseudo-models of Europe and the world. "Who is so gnusen here that does not want to love his fatherland? If this is the way, let him say, - I insulted it. I am waiting for a response, "Shakespeare has fallen in the mouth of one of his heroes of those who material benefits, put their skin interests above such ideals as love and loyalty to the Motherland. Now about the ecumenia itself. It is very far from those ideals that Christianity preaches. Modern civilization - and ecumenism is one of its characteristic manifestations - declared the ease of life unconditionally. I would say that modern society is deeply religious. It worships the Godhead, whose name is "Comfort". For the sake of this comfort, today you can go on crimes, on transactions with conscience, you can degrade from the real life of the wall of indifference - if only it was comfortable. All moral boundaries are erased, culture degradation occurs, because the real culture is not only the desire for beauty, not only some ideals, but also a very strict set of prohibitions. The culture has always included certain "taboo": it is impossible because it is impossible!

Such prohibitions are produced on the basis of historical experience hundreds of generations and achievements of the best people. Many of the ancient ancient heroes and Christian devotees did not cross these moral prohibitions even at the cost of their own lives: let me kill me, execute, but I still do not commit what it is imposed on me. A modern civilization, including ecumenism, blurs all the prohibitions. If any savages are comfortable and habitually make their pagan rites with human sacrifices, then this cruelty is our pseudo-octic civilization simply closes his eyes. Ecumenism comes from the fact that all faiths are equal. I, they say, - a free person, and a resident of the country where such cults are practiced, is also a free person. I have the right to believe so, and it is different. My faith is no better than his faith. What I have the right to impose my faith to him, because it is non-democratic ... But then the same can be said about the criminal: what I have the right to impose my behavior style - if he wants to kill, then let him kill. After all, he is a free person of a free country ... And here is the movement that consciously seeks to blur all kinds of moral borders, they are trying to involve Orthodox Christians. Our faith includes a lot of solid divine prohibitions. "Do not kill," "Do not commit adultery" ... But the "modern" look at these moral bans - other, and most often - the opposite ...


- However, not only moral boundaries are blurred, but also the boundaries of religious religion. The borders of the teachings about who we believe ...

- Yes, modern democracy is transferred to the heavenly sphere. What is this god worse than that of God? How is Perun better torus or worse? Or than Christ is better than Buddha? They are all - as if equal. And here Christianity is very firmly, despite ridicule and accusations in retrogradity, backwardness, narrowlessness and absence of democraticness, stands on confessing its fundamental exclusivity. Because there is a revelation, stored by the Orthodox Church, that the living God really came to the ground and became a man to save humanity, heal the human nature amazed by sin to reveal a sample of perfection, a sample of spiritual beauty, holiness. This sample is infinitely perfect, because God himself is infinite. And here to this endless ideal and is called upon to every person. He must strive for this incomprehensible Divine beauty, and just it is Christianity. From this highest calling, the Orthodox Church cannot refuse: otherwise it will inevitably reincarnate from God, from itself.

- There is also such a question here: and whom will the representatives of other religions honor? It is often said that God lives in the heart that in different religions God is in different images and appears, but that he is nevertheless the same for all beliefs. In this regard, as the Orthodox Church can answer, for example, for such assertions that Buddha, they say, it is only another image of the Blessed Trinity or that Jesus Christ is the same as Krishna ...

When they argue that God is in different images, in various incarnations in all religions, thereby adopted by Hindu philosophy. There is no Christian verbation, but the pagan religion is terrible on its spiritual essence. If we argue that God is one, then we confess the truth on which Christianity stands: we believe in a single God. But if we say: God is one in all religions, then this second part of the phrase is the first tip. Because what unity can we have, Orthodox Christians, with those religions in which, for example, is performed by a ritual forbid - in the so-called phallic cults? And ritual killings? Or when to come to an excited spiritual state, drugs are used, psychotropic, albeit natural, substances? When a person coming into such an aggregate state begins to broadcast, and those present at the same time think that the revelation of a certain deity is heard? What? Probably the of which the Bible says (I repeat it again): "Bosy Language is units." Somehow in the middle of the nineties, I saw several preachers on the street with a speaker - who, having kicked up and in the ranks by having hands under modern rhythmic music, the Narasphev was headed: "Where the Spirit of God, there is freedom." These words belong to the Apostle Paul (2nd Message to Corinthians 3: 17) and reflect spiritual reality: where the Spirit of God, there is freedom. The people gathered around, looked at someone, too, began to shive and bother. And I stopped and thought: so it is so, but does the Spirit of God present here? Obviously, no.


Rubric: Other religions, Faith Basics

Ecumenism is it "for" or "against" Orthodoxy?

The concept of ecumenia

Ecumenism translated from the Greek means "inhabit", "to dwell". Initially, "Okumena" was called the territory mastered people. Consequently, Ecumenial is an "universal", relating to humanity.

The modern concept of "ecumenism" was used at the congress of the "International Missionary Council" at the beginning of the twentieth century. The author of the idea is the famous Protestant preacher John Mott (1865 - 1955). His ecumenial views were widespread among the Protestants. Subsequently, they became popular among the diverse religious currents of Europe and America.

Ecumenism is
"Temple of all religions" (Kazan, Russia)

Directions of ecumenism

Ecumenism is the idea of ​​rapprochement of various religious flows in one commonality (community). The idea of ​​ecumenia also claims the "universal" scale. However, the true faith at the same time is replaced by an exclusively mechanical association of various religious flows that have disappeared from Orthodoxy. It has three main directions.

First direction

A constructive dialogue between Christian communities aimed at a joint preaching of the Gospel in the non-Christian world. Also an important task is to oppose the negative parties of modern paganism. An example of such cooperation can serve as a Christian seminar "Totalitarian sects in Russia". In it, Christians of various denominations were designated as the Anti-Christian initiative to unite Christianity with the "occult" and oriental beliefs.

"If some religious or" cultural "group talks about himself that she found the path to the synthesis of all world religions is a clear sign that we are not" all-great teaching "before us. This is a sect that is trying to put a pseudo-sufficient cult under the mask of sympathy for Christianity "(final report of the seminar).

Second direction

The liberal course, which is based on the desire to combine various Christian denominations to the common church. Ecumenism in such an understanding takes its beginning among Protestants. The essence of the so-called "the theory of branches" is that Christians, to whichest churches should not be, have a common faith in Christ crucified and risen. Consequently, despite the significant differences in dogmas, all Christians are members of one church.

Such an association, according to supporters of this idea, would only benefit in the spread of Christianity. Moreover, it might enrich and diversify each other's culture. Racing assumed general prayer and joint communion.

Third direction

The doctrine of the union of all world religions into a single religious system in which God seems to be "the highest mind" and "Absolut". Thus, it is proposed not only to remove all the contradictions, but also to eliminate all the features of different religions.

Let's talk about ecumenia as a desire to combine Christian denominations in one church.

Ecumenism is the common faith in Jesus Christ or delusion?

Rev. Paisius Svyatogorets (1924 - 1994) to the question "What is Ecumenism?" answered:

"The devil threw the network to catch all humanity in them. The rich from wanting to catch Masonry, poor - communism, and believing - ecumenism. "

For the first time, the ideas of ecumenism were convicted by the Russian Orthodox Church in 1621 by Patriarch Filaret (the Cathedral presentation of 1621 on the baptism of Latin). At the same time, the idea of ​​rapprochement of Orthodox and Catholics was widespread among Greek priests and clergy. Later, during the period of European reformation, the idea of ​​the spiritual unity of all Christians was divided by many Protestant communities.

Nowadays, "Christian" ecumenism is gaining all the big turns among people who consider themselves the followers of Christ. Most often, adherents of this idea are not deepening in the study of the Holy Scriptures and the creed of the Orthodox Church.

"Christian" ecumenism relies on an indefinite, but nevertheless the real feeling of "general Christianity", shared by many who do not particularly think about the church and is not particularly hot to it, and its goal is to "create" a church uniting all such indifferent Christians ... "Christian" ecumenism in its best version is a sincere and understandable misleading of Protestants and Catholics, - a delusion that is that they do not know how to understand that the visible Church of Christ already exists and what they are out of " Hieromona Seraphim (Rose)).

"Ecumenism" What is this in Orthodoxy?

Ecumenial initiatives and these days are seriously considered in many Christian churches. So, Pope Francis I proposed to determine the general date of Easter for all Christians. And this is despite the fact that in the Rule I of the Universal Cathedral (325), the criteria for determining the date of the Resurrection of Christ are clearly marked and there is no change in it.

The Patriarch of Constantinople Bartholomew replied that he sees the benefit in such reform

"For Christians living in America, Western Europe and Oceania" and "in recent years, and especially after the fall of the" iron curtain ", some forces in some national churches, unfortunately, oppose this idea of ​​reform" (from the Italian interview newspaper La Stampa).

In the Russian Orthodox Church, most of the clergymen do not see the real opportunity to combine Christian denominations for the overall prayer and participation in the Eucharist. After all, the apostolic rule says: "If someone who is erased from the communication of church will pray, at least it was in the house: it will be omitted" (10th Rule of the Holy Apostles).

"I do not unite with heretics, wherever their center, in Geneva or Rome, our Holy Orthodox Church, always faithful to the holy apostles and fathers, will not give up this from their Christian mission and evangelical debt, i.e. it will be in front of modern Orthodox and uninostable world is humbly, but boldly testify the truth of allial, living and true God-man and the surpasal and all-rearing force of Orthodoxy. The church, led by Christ, through his patristic spirit and theologians will always be ready for any requiring a report to give a report in our hope (1 Pet. 3, 15) "(Rev. Justin (Popovich)" Report of the Sacred Synod of the Serbian Church ").

It must be recognized that some priests of the Russian Orthodox Church are loyal to the trend of rapprochement with Catholics. The most famous example - Archpriest Alexander Men.

Why Orthodox Church denies ecumenial ideas

The creation of the true church of Christ is clearly formulated in the faith symbol:

"I believe in one, the Holy, the Cathedral and Apostolic Church."

It says not about the new combined structure, but many centuries an existing and unchanged Orthodox Church. This church was created on the stone of Christ Truth, and not on the sand of all sorts of heresies and delusions. The church would not be united if the timeline approaches to dogmas would be allowed. Actually, the result of such interpretations has a historical example - the presence of a huge number of Protestant flows.

Ecumenists reject the unshakable apostolic rules (10th and 45th). They talk about the impossibility of prayer communication with heretics. And any Orthodox Christian retreating from this prohibition must be excommunicated from the church.

Also, ecumenia tend to diminish the importance of patristic works. It is submitted as human creativity, not divine revelation. The sacred legend ceases to be sacred, it is no longer considered as authority. The first place is put by the interpretation of the Bible at its discretion, which leads to significant delusions.

Such a look is alien to Orthodox fault, since the Divine Truth remains unchanged over 2000 years. In ecumenia, the true impartial faith is replaced with a "comfortable" surrogate. There is an opportunity to cancel "too strict" and "non-limited" dogmas and establish their rules.

Opinion of priests about ecumenia

Saint Ignatius (Bryanchaninov):

"" Heretics are the same Christians. " Where did you get it from? .. Numerous Suns of Saints Enough the Crown Martyr, preferred lute and prolonged flour, dungeon, expulsion, rather than agree to participate with heretics in their bogworm teaching. The Ecumenical Church has always recognized the heres of mortal sin, always recognized that the man infected with the terrible ailment of heresy, dead soul, alien grace and salvation, in communicating with the devil and his perillery ...

Heresy - sin of the mind. Heresy - more sin Diavolish, rather than human; She is a dashing of a devil, its invention, wickedness close to idolatry. Fathers usually call idolatry with dishes, and the heresy is malicious. In idolatry, the devil accepted his own honor from blinded people; Heresha, he makes blind people with the participants of the main sin - blasphemy. "

Deacon Andrey Kuraev:

"There are meaningful contradictions between religions. Orthodox disagree on the Ulya is not due to their bad nature ("intolerant", "fanatical", "ignorant ..."). Just the opposite - Orthodox theologians defend the originality of Orthodoxy precisely because they are more educated and knowledge of religious life than ordinary people who do not know seriously the religious tradition of their nation, nevertheless others.

This is not about the historical, national or corporate reflex, but about the thought and heart. Orthodox heart rate experience in Christ is different from other religious ways. And the Orthodox Theological Thought, being in obedience to this experience gives him an explanation. Therefore, the appeal to the latitude is not limited to an increase in education and the inclusion of books of other traditions into its horizons.

Books read - it's a simple. The ecumenical project involves the change of that experience that for Orthodox thought is existentially reliable. After all, the "reconciliation of religions" means the need to admit that in addition to the rustic-patristic experience of life in Christ, the experience of other religions is quite a reliable source of knowledge. "

Archimandrite Seraphim (Aleksiyev):

"Ecumenism is death and for nonsense and for Orthodox. By ecumenism, nonsense do not acquire the truth, and with her possessing Orthodox removed from it. "

Ecumenism (Greek. ἰἰκουμένη. , inhabited world) - the ideology of allial unity, Ecumenical movement - Movement for world Christian unity, in a narrower and generally accepted meaning - a movement for the best mutual understanding and cooperation of Christian denominations. The prevailing role belongs to Protestant organizations.

General provisions and causes of occurrence

According to some authors, ecumenism arose at the beginning of the 20th century for the purpose of [one] :

  1. enhancing the influence of Christianity;
  2. Resistance secularization ;
  3. the development of a generally Christian social program suitable for believers living in countries with various social systems;

Supporters of ecumenism believe that it will be the execution of the words of Christ

And the glory you gave me, I gave them: May they be one, as we are one. I am in them, and you in me; Yes, they will be committed together, and it will know the world that you sent me and loved them, as you loved me. (In.17: 22-23)

The attitude of various Christian denominations to ecumenia

Early forms of ecumenism

Known ecumenical trends that manifested in the Middle Ages Christian East [2] [3] . These phenomena were largely due to the flourishing of the culture of the Arab Caliphate [four] .

In the period of reformation on the territory of Germany, joint churches (simultaneums) were distributed, where services were alternately by representatives of various denominations. Religious tolerance promoted and adopted in Germany according to the results of the Augsburg world, the principle of Cuius Regio, Eius Religio.

Later, the principle of indifference to the denomination, provided faith in God, was distributed in Freemasonry. All official churches of Europe and Russia treated Masonry negatively.

Ecumenism and Orthodox Church

One of the first ecumenical assemblies were: the 1920 Conference in Geneva (Switzerland), the Lausanian Conference of 1927 (Switzerland), and the formation of the ecumenical movement in modern form was completed by the 1945 Conference in Stockholm (Sweden).

In January 1920, Konstantinople's Patriarchals, Metropolitan Dorofeofe released an encyclical entitled "To the Christian Churches of the whole world", in which she claims that it considers the mutual rapprochement and communication of various, so-called "Christian churches", despite the dogmatic differences between them. These churches are named in Encyclick Constantinople Patriarchate " Sconcelates constituting one body " Metropolitan Dorofeofa proposes to establish "Society of churches" and, as the first step for rapprochement, accept " Unified calendar for the simultaneous celebration of the main Christian holidays " [five]

Six months after the publication of this encyclick, Constantinople Patriarchate takes part in the Ecumenical Conference in Geneva (August 1920), which was engaged in the development of the principles of ecumenical movement.

The following noticeable stage in the ecumenical activities of the Constantinople Patriarchate became the "Distribution Congress" of 1923 in Constantinople. Representatives of only five local Orthodox Churches: Constantinople, Cyprus, Serbian, Elaladskaya and Romanian took part in it.

Congress establishes a change in the church calendar, allowing the second to be apparent for spiritual persons and accepts other rulings.

The new style is introduced in the Constantinople Patriarchate and in the Elaladian Church in March 1924, October 1, 1924 - in the Romanian Church. Over the next years, Alexandria and Antioch Church moved to the new style.

The most bright ecumenical views outlined the Universal Patriarch Athenagor. In response to the story of Olivier Clemana about a certain theologian, which heresy sees everywhere, Athenagor said: [6]

And I do not see them (heresy) anywhere! I see only truths, partial, cut off, other times not in place and attracted to catch and enter into an inexhaustible secret ...

Bulgarian Orthodox Church and Georgian Orthodox churches in 1997-1998 left the World Council of Churches.

Ecumenism and Russian Orthodox Church (Moscow Patriarchate)

For December 1946, the World Council of Churches and the Moscow Patriarchate was appointed a meeting for " Familiarize each other and establishing a common base, goals and activities of the Council of Churches " [7] . On August 12, 1946, in a special report addressed to the patriarch of Archpriest Grigory, Razumovsky notes the conditions for the participation of the ROC MP in the ecumenical movement:

"We agree to enter the ecumenical movement if:
1) the leaders of the ecumenical movement will be refused against the patronage of our splitters (Feofil, Dionysius, Herman Aaav, Anastasiya, John Shanghai) and actually show the actions of these leaders of pressure on Raskolnikov, in order to reunite them in the jurisdiction of the Holy Patriarch of Moscow;
2) If none of the representatives of our splitters are invited to participate in motion. No disorders, no floor and other creatures of the Parisian Theological Institute should not be admitted to participate in motion.
Or they, ecumenists, wish to deal with a single holistic (in their previous borders) by the Russian Orthodox Church, or in the ecumenical movement will not be attended by any of the local Orthodox churches (Eastern, Balkan et al.) These are ultimatum. So that it can be satisfied - should be a block of all Orthodox and non-erect, but located or in the territory of the USSR or in the sphere of the influence of the USSR (Armenians, Starokatoliki) churches [7] .

However, the World Council of Churches, this "ultimatum" was not adopted, and at the Moscow Division of 1948, the Moscow, Alexandrian, Georgian, Serbian, Romanian, Bulgarian, Albanian, Polish and Russian Orthodox Church in resolution "Ecumenical movement and the Orthodox Church" [8] noted that " are forced to refuse to participate in the ecumenical movement, in its modern plan " [nine] .

But exactly ten years later, Metropolitan Krutitsky and Kolomensky Nikolai (Chairman of the Oscs), speaking in the Moscow Spiritual Academy [ten] Declare a new position of the ROC MP in relation to participation in ecumenical movement.

The main reason for revising the decisions of the meeting was (as well as) an argument about the need to serve Orthodoxy among nonsense. According to Metropolitan Nikolai, "thanks to the participation of one Orthodox churches" there was an "evolution of the ecumenical movement" ... "In contact with our church life, many of the figures of the ecumenical movement completely changed their understanding of Orthodoxy." And therefore, the Metropolitan Nikolai continues, it is necessary to "strengthen our attention to its development."

In 1960, Metropolitan Nicodem (Rotov) was appointed to the position of Chairman of the OSDS, and still memorable with his ecumenical activities. From this point on, the RPC MP becomes the immediate and active participant of the ecumenical movement.

On April 11, 1961, Patriarch Alexy I is a statement about the accession of the ROC MP to the World Council of Churches, which confirms the consent of the MP RPC with the HCC Constitution and the compliance of the MP RPC requirements to the new members. "ROC MP not only always prayed and prays about the welfare of the Saints of God's churches and the combination of all, but also determined to bear their contribution to the great matter of Christian unity through the former movements" faith and the device "," life and activity "and" international friendship " Churches "" [eleven] .

The Bishops Cathedral (July 1961) in his definition on the report of Metropolitan Nicodema approved the entry of the RPC MP to the World Council of Churches and, thus, consolidated the revision of the decisions of the Moscow Distribution Makeup of 1948.

The epoch in the life of the MP RPC from 1960 to 1978, when OVDS was under the leadership of Metropolitan Nicodemus, is known among ecumenism opponents called "Nicodeims". It is characterized by the amplification of the contacts of the RPC MP with the Vatican.

This period ended with the death of Nicodem (Rotov) in 1978. Nevertheless, the ROC MP, like other Orthodox churches [12] So far, a member of the World Council of Churches and is actively involved in his work.

The statement of the Holy Synod of March 20, 1980 states the following:

"Proceedings in the ecumenical sphere, their development and deepening should also remain the focus of our church. And, in particular, the theological dialogues with non-unified churches are aimed at achieving unity ... We believe it is necessary to continue to deepen these dialogues ... We consider it necessary to further deepen the participation of the Orthodox Church in the current activities of the WTS, as well as the European Churches Conference [thirteen] "

At the Bishop Cathedral of the Russian ROC 1994, the Chairman of the Synodal Theological Commission of the Moscow Patriarchate Metropolitan Filaret (Vakhromyev) was made with a report "On the attitude of the Russian Orthodox Church for interchristian cooperation in search of unity". The report would raise the question of admissibility for Orthodox to participate in the so-called "ecumenical prayer about Christian unity", which is performed annually in January during the so-called "week of prayers about unity" with the presence of Christians of different confessions. The report noted that the Orthodox Church does not recognize Catholics, Protestants and Anglican Hehetics, despite the lack of Eucharistic communication with them and the presence of dogmatic disagreements. In accordance with the report, the Orthodox Church recognizes the reality of baptism, the Eucharist, the Priesthood, the Bishopata of Catholics and the presence of the apostolic succession. Regarding Protestants and Anglican in the report, it was said that the Orthodox Church recognizes the reality of their sacrament of baptism:

"They are divided by our brothers in Christ, brothers in faith in the triune of God, according to the belief in the Lord Jesus Christ as God and the Savior, the brothers in relation to the body of Christ (that is, to the Church of Christ) through the sacrament of baptism, the reality of which we recognize (confessing Single baptism), brothers in the Christian community, which we testify to the truth of St. Orthodoxy, legend and intact faith of an ancient church. "

According to the report of Metropolitan Philaret, the Bishi Cathedral adopted the definition of "On the attitude of the Russian Orthodox Church to the Interchristian Cooperation in Search of Unity", which the question of the feasibility or inappropriateness of prayers with foreign Christians during the official meetings, secular celebrations, conferences, theological dialogues, negotiations, and in In other cases, it was transferred "to the adequacy of the priesthood in general terrorist external activity and for the benefit of the diocesan reinstalled in the affairs of the intraparchial life." [14]

At the Bishops' Cathedral of the ROC MP chaired by His Holiness Patriarch Alexy II in 2000, "Basic Principles of Relationships to Separation" was adopted, in which it was said that [15] :

"The Orthodox Church cannot adopt the thesis that, despite the historical divisions, fundamental, the deep unity of Christians was allegedly broken and that the church should be understood as the coincidence with the whole "Christian world" that the Christian unity allegedly exists on top of denominational barriers "(II. 4), "the so-called" theory of branches "is completely unacceptable and associated with the above concept, approving the normality and even the providentiality of the existence of Christianity in the form of individual" branches "(II. 5)," the Orthodox Church cannot recognize the "equality of denominations". The church who fell from the church cannot be reunited with it in the state, in which are now being, the existing dogmatic discrepancies must be overcome, and not just uploaded. " "

However, the testimony of disagreement with the Protestant "theory of branches", the "basic principles" stressed the positive purpose of the ecumenical movement:

"The most important goal of the relations of the Orthodox Church with Separate is the restoration of the unity of Christians (in. 17, 21), which is part of the divine intent and belongs to the very essence of Christianity. This is the task of paramount importance for the Orthodox Church at all levels of its being [16] ."
"Indifference towards this task or the rejection of it is a sin against the commandment of God about unity. According to St. Basil the Great, "sincerely and truly working for the Lord it is necessary to only make the effort to bring again to the unity of the Church, so many separately separated [17] ."

At the same time, the ROC ratio to the ecumenical movement (as noted in a special application) is formulated as follows: "The most important goal of Orthodox participation in the ecumenical movement has always consisted and should be in the future to bear the certificate of the creed and the catholic tradition of the Church, and first The truth about the unity of the Church, as it is carried out in the life of the Local Orthodox Churches. " The ROC membership in the World Council of Churches, referred further, does not mean the recognition of his church reality by itself: "The spiritual value and significance of the WCC is determined by the readiness and desire of members of the HCC to hear and respond to the testimony of the Catolytic Truth."

Ecumenism and Catholic Church

After the Second Vatican Cathedral, the Catholic Church partially stood on the position of ecumenism. In particular, this is reflected in the encyclical of the Pope John Paul II "UT UNUM SINT", Unitatis Redintegratio Declaration, Dominus Iesus Declaration and other official documents of the Catholic Church.

At the same time, Catholic ecumenism does not imply "the abolition of interfaith differences due to bringing the dogmas of all churches to a single compromise version - common to all Christian teachings." Such an interpretation of ecumenism in terms of Catholicism is unacceptable, as Catholic ecumenism comes from the statement that "the whole full of truth is in the Catholic Church." Consequently, something to change in their dogmatics CC cannot [18] .

Declaration of Congregation of the Catholic Church of the Dominus Iesus Catholic Church, explaining the position of Catholics on this issue, says [19] :

"Catholics are designed to confess that there is historical continuity - rooted in the apostolic continuity - the church founded by Christ and the Catholic Church: "This is the only church of Christ, ... which our Savior on the Sunday instructed his mouth Petra (cf. in 21.17) and him As well as other apostles, he entered its distribution and management (Wed. MF 28.18) and forever erect it as a "pillar and approval of truth" (1 Tim 3.15). This church, established and established in the world, as a community, resides ("Subsistit in") in the Catholic Church, managed by the successor of Peter and Bishops in dealing with him. " The phrase "Subsistit in" ("dwells in") II Vatican Cathedral sought to balance the two challenge statements: on the one hand, that the Church of Christ, despite the divisions that exist between Christians, is complete only in the Catholic Church; On the other hand, the fact that "outside its fence can also be found many grains of holiness and truth" (that is, in churches and church communities, not in perfect communication with the Catholic Church). However, taking this into account, it must be argued that "their strength comes from the completeness of grace and truth, which entrusted to the Catholic Church." "

The essence of Catholic ecumenism consists not in the refusal of his dogmatics for the sake of creating an acceptable confession of compromise creed, and in respect of everything in other confessions, which does not contradict the already existing Catholic faith: "It is necessary that Catholics are happily recognized and appreciated the truly Christian Goods ascending to the general heritage that brothers separated from us are. It is right and saving to recognize the wealth of Christ and the actions of his forces in the life of others, testifying to Christ, sometimes even before the shedding of their own blood, for God always divent, and should admire them in his business " [twenty] .

"Christians ... It is impossible to believe that the Church of Christ - just a meeting - divided, but, nevertheless, in something united - churches and church communities; It should also be assumed that in our time the Church of Christ is noger than anywhere, on the contrary, it should be believed that she is a goal to which all churches and church communities should strive. In fact, "the elements of this already arranged church exist, combined in completeness in the Catholic Church and, without this completeness, in other communities [19] ."
"Consequently, although we believe that these churches and communities separated from us suffer from some disadvantages, nevertheless, they are dilated and weighing the secret of salvation. For the Spirit of Christ does not refuse to use them as saving means, the power of which comes from the completeness of grace and truth, which entrusted to the Catholic Church [19] ."
"The lack of Christian unity will definitely be wounds the church; Not in the sense that it turns out to be devoid of unity, but the separation hinders the perfect implementation of its universeness in history [19] ."

Decree on Ecumenism Unitatis Redintegratio emphasizes special proximity to the Catholicism of Orthodox Churches, which are recognized by true local churches with valid sacraments and priesthood. Therefore, the Catholic Church allows its flock to resort to the sacraments in Orthodox churches, if they do not have the opportunity to do it in the Catholic community. Orthodox, in the absence of opportunity to resort to the sacraments in Orthodox communities, allowed to them in Catholic churches.

Protestant denominations are more distant from Catholicism. Protestants, under certain conditions, it is also allowed to resort to sacraments in Catholic communities, if they confirm their understanding from the point of view of Catholicism.

The Catholic Church is not a member of the World Council of Churches and its representatives consist with it only as an observer.

Ecumenism and Anglican Church

The Anglican Church stands on consistently ecumenical positions. A number of arrivals introduced the Open Communion system, according to which any baptized Christian can take part in the sacraments, which recognizes the dogma of the Trinity. In their services, the British will pray not only for the leaders of the Anglican Church, but also for the Pope of the Roman, Orthodox patriarchs and other Christian leaders.

Ecumenism and Seventh Day Adventists

Seventh-day Adventist Church does not support ecumenism as a phenomenon reconcile to truth with sin. Seventh-day Adventist Church prays for all people living on the planet, but recognizes cooperation with other religions only solely in the social sphere.

Criticism and denial of ecumenism

Criticism and denial of ecumenism on the part of some Orthodox churches, groups and individual representatives

Archbishop Seraphim (Sobolev) at the Moscow Distribution Meeting (1948) said [21] :

"... Mondering the essence and goals of ecumenism, fully rejected the ecumenical movement, for there is a retreat from Orthodox faith, betrayal and treason. Ecumenism will not celebrate his victory until he concludes all Orthodox churches in his ecumenical universal ring. Do not give him this victory! "

Various Orthodox Churches that are not part of the World Orthodoxy system (CPI, Old Believers Orthodox Churches and Consent, Old Town Churches, etc.), may have a fundamentally different point of view on the ecumenical movement. In particular, the True-Orthodox churches consider Ecumenism heresy, and the Orthodox Churches, which are members of the world Orthodoxy, respectively, heretical and disappeared from Orthodoxy. [22] [23] [24] [25]

In accordance with his dogmatic views, the CPI does not accept and criticize the "Basic Principles of Relations to Separation" adopted by the RPC MP. [26]

The participation of the ROC MP in the ecumenical movement was one of the main reasons of the gap with her former bishop Diomide [27] .

Ecumenial organizations


  2. Seleznev, N. N., "Message on the unity" of Baghdad Melkita in the composition of the encyclopedic "arch" of the Arabic Copet XIII century // State, religion, church in Russia and abroad 3 (M.: Rags, 2010), C. 151-156.
  3. Seleznev, N. N., WASHERIRIAL BRANCHER FROM THE ARFUDA AND JERUSALIM METHOPOLITY OF THE EASTER CHURCH: "The Book of Community Faith" and her handwritten editors for Cark // Symbol 58: Syriaca & Arabica (Paris-Moscow, 2010), P. 34-87.
  4. Seleznev, N. N., Medieval Eastern Christian Ecumenism as a result of Islamic Universalism // Philosophical Journal / IF RAS 1 (8) (2012), P. 77-85.
  5. District Epistle of the Universal Patriarchate 1920 "Churches of Christ, everywhere," on the website "Education and Orthodoxy"
  6. O. Cleman. Conversations with Patriarch Athenagor. Theology
  7. 1 2 Archive OVDS, d. 180 // Puber. at: Bubnov P. V. Russian Orthodox Church and World Council of Churches: Prehistory of Relationships in 1946-1948. // Proceedings of the Minsk Spiritual Academy. Zhirovichi, 2005, No. 3, p. 83.
  8. Acts of the Meeting of Chapters and Representatives of Autochefal Orthodox Churches in connection with the celebration of the 500th anniversary of the Avtochefali RPC MP
  9. See "Journal of Moscow Patriarchate" (JMMP), Special Room, 1948
  10. See "JMP" No. 6/1958, p.67-73)
  11. "Church Life", No. 5-7 / 1961, p. 95-96
  12. In addition to the Bulgarian and Georgian, published from the WCC in 1997-98.
  13. Jump, 1980, No. 5, p. 3-6.
  14. The bishop cathedral of the Russian Orthodox Church. November 29 - December 2, 1994. Moscow. Documents. Reports. - M.: Ed. MP, 1995. - P.98-100.
  15. "The basic principles of the attitude towards an aliabia" (II. 7).
  16. "The basic principles of attitude towards an aliabia" (II. 1)
  17. "The basic principles of the attitude towards an aliabia" (II. 2)
  18. Dominus Iesus Declaration
  19. 1 2 3 4 Dominus Iesus Declaration on website
  20. Unitatis Redintegratio. (rus.) . Decree II of the Vatican Cathedral (21 Ecumenical Cathedral). About the catholic principles of ecumenism; On the implementation of ecumenism; About churches and church communities separated from the Roman Apostolic Throne: about special respect for the eastern churches, about separated churches and church communities in the West. . Orthodox Catholic Church in Odessa (05/16/2008). Archived from primary source February 12, 2012. Checked October 4, 2009.
  21. "Do I need to participate in the ecumenical orthodox church?" - Archbishop Seraphim (Sobolev) (rus.) . Ecumenical movement and Orthodox Church. Acts of the meeting of chapters and representatives of autochefal Orthodox churches in connection with the celebration of the 500th anniversary of the autochefalia of the Russian Orthodox Church . (July 17, 1948). - Materials are published by: Distribution meetings: Moscow Meeting of Proposals and Representatives of Autochefal Orthodox Churches (July 9-17, 1948) Journal of Moscow Patriarchate. M., 1948. Nobleman. Archived from primary source February 12, 2012. Checked on February 5, 2010.
  22. Definition of the Bishop Cathedral of the Russian Orthodox Church "On the canonical status of the Moscow Patriarchate and other churches of" World Orthodoxy "
  23. Hieromona Gregory (V. M. Lurie) Ecclinisiology of the retreating army (theology)
  24. Hieromona Grigory (Lurie) True Orthodox Church and World Orthodoxy: History and Causes of Separation
  25. Ecumenism: Arab model, or what faces the Moscow Patriarchate? - Vertograd No. 2 (47) (1999)
  26. Ierodiakon Feofan. New version of patriarchy ecumenism. On the basics of the concept of MP on the issue of ambassador
  27. Igum. Peter (Meshcherinov) about "Diomidstin"



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