Shoot down or knock down: instruction for adults - CMT scientific approach

When a thermometer shows for 37 - this is a reason to alert. But to panic and immediately reach the pills for nothing. Coolly tell how to defeat the heat.

How to understand that I have a heat?

To begin with, remember that the body temperature varies depending on the floor, age, the time of day, eaten, drunk, the measurement site and the kind of thermometer. For example, in the elderly, it is usually lower than that of young. And under the arm - on a whole degree less than in the rectum (1).

If averaged, the approximate limits of the norm - from 36.5 ° C to 37.2 ° C. But this is not the main thing.

Typically, the growing temperature is accompanied by unpleasant symptoms - weakness, illness, headache, or other inexplicable discomfort in the body. If you feel sick, but the thermometer shows only a minor deviation from the norm, wait an hour or two and dim out again.

True, what is best to measure mercury degrees?

No. The mercury thermometer is familiar and more accurately electronic. But if he suddenly breaks, you can poison toxic couples in mercury. You should not panic from this at the sight of your old thermometer, but it is better to replace it with a safer analogue. Moreover, it will soon have to do so: in 2014, Russia signed the Minamat Convention on Mercury and pledged to refuse 2020 including from the sale of mercury hydraulic devices. How to replace them?

Glass migratory thermometer It looks just like mercury, but safer and is not inferior to him with accuracy (2). Inside, instead of a toxic element, a metal alloy that does not harm a person if the thermometer breaks down.

Digital Thermometer It has a greater error compared to glass, but it cannot be broken. Measure the temperature them is better under the tongue or in the back pass. And do not rush: experts advise waiting a couple of minutes after the sound signal.

Infrared thermometers Measure the temperature in the ears or on the forehead. The advantage is that they have several seconds for it, so such thermometers often buy for children. Disadvantage - not the highest accuracy (3).

I have exactly the heat. What could it be?

Specific situations when the temperature rises, a lot. Here are the most common:

- You woke up with a small sore throat, which gradually grew up. After some time, a runny nose was connected, and in the evening the temperature was slightly rose. Most likely it cold .

- You got a head of my head, the lubrications in the muscles and joints appeared, the temperature sharply jumped. Your condition began to deteriorate rapidly. You probably picked up flu .

- Yesterday you made vaccinations, and you have a low temperature for two days. If there are no other symptoms of the disease, this is the normal response of the body on Vaccine .

- Strong sore throat, which keeps longer than three to five days, swelling almonds and high temperature - signs Angina .

- If you have gotten the flu and the temperature first slept, and in a couple of days I returned, and all this is accompanied by pain in the chest, wheezing, shortness of breath - it can be pneumonia .

- High temperatures combined with pain in the ear - there is a chance that you have otitis .

- Fever is accompanied by vomiting and / or diarrhea without signs of ARVI - Certificate Intestinal infection .

- slightly elevated temperature, which keeps for a long time without any other symptoms, can talk about chronic inflammation or infection (for example, tuberculosis), hormonal disorders, and also neoplasms .

- Women's temperature can rise slightly after ovulation .

Whatever it was, I first grant for pills, right?

No. In general, the millennium doctors observed patients with temperatures, but still did not come to an unequivocal opinion (4) whether it is always necessary to shoot it down with medication.

It is believed that the high temperature helps the body to cope with the infection: in the heat of harmful microbes even worse than we.

Therefore, if the thermometer shows less than 38 ° C in the armpit, and you are not very bad - the antipyretic drink is not needed.

Well, tea is something hot need to drink?! And wrapped in the blanket!

Here are some simple recommendations that will help easier to move temperature (5):

- Drink more water or herbal tea. But no more than 3 liters per day and not hot. Hot drinks burn mucous and additionally heated the body - this is at a temperature of anything.

- Take a warm (not hot!) Bath. The water temperature should be slightly lower than the body temperature, it will help slightly reduce fever.

- Wave wet towel. Put a cool wet towel on the forehead and refresh it every 10-15 minutes.

- Do not kill. At a temperature produced excess heat, and he needs to go somewhere. If you turn into a hundred clothes, it will create a "greenhouse effect" (for the body it is also harmful as for the planet). It is better to put clothes from light fabrics. And if znobit, cover the thin blanket.

- Carry the room so that it is not too stuffy.

And if I feel bad, the better to shoot down?

If you are hard to transfer any temperature change - it is not necessary to wait 38.1 ° C: drink paracetamol, ibuprofen or naproxen.

But a familiar to everyone since childhood, aspirin doctors recommend taking, only if there are no other drugs at hand. This is an effective, but not the safest medicine: it dilutes blood, which can lead to internal bleeding.

Especially dangerously taking aspirin on the background of flu. This virus in itself increases the permeability of the vessels, and if you add the dangling blood to the effect of acetylsalicylic acid, then the risk of bleeding will grow even stronger. Also aspirin is contraindicated by people with ulcers of the stomach and asthmatics.

Recommended adult dosages:

Paracetamol 500 mg / 3-4 times a day / maximum daily dose 4 g

Ibuprofen. 200-400 mg / every 4-6 hours / Maximum daily dose of 1200 mg.

Naproxen 500-750 mg / 2 times a day / Maximum daily dose 1.75

Aspirin 0.5-1 g / 1 time at 4 o'clock / maximum daily dose - 3 g

Important

You can only drink aspirin for adults. In children, he can cause a dangerous Syndrome of Reya - the cause of hepatic insufficiency, encephalopathy and death.

When to call a doctor?

Temperature - alarming beacon, but does not always require immediate medical participation. If there are no other symptoms or they are weakly expressed - most likely, the doctor will advise you to rest and watch well-mind. Therefore, in the first three days you can not panic and lie down at home. If for this you strictly need sick leave, you will have to go to the doctor on the first day.

If the temperature continues to rise persistently, and you do not understand what is the reason, call a doctor to the house or at least consult with it remotely.

You can observe

- Fell in the nose and sings the throat, the temperature holds less than three days, but in general you feel good.

- The temperature keeps 1-3 days, but nothing bothers you anymore.

- You poisoned, know exactly what (and this is something harmless like yesterday's Olivier), the temperature is small, you broke out and has become easier.

It's time to call

- The temperature keeps longer than three days or rose again in a couple of days after the end of the disease.

- During the week, the temperature regularly rises to 38 ° C.

- Together with the temperature you have sharp throat, ear and strong cough.

- You poisoned, you have the temperature and signs of dehydration: dry mouth, weakness, dizziness.

- A rash appeared on any skin site.

- The urine has changed the color, in urination feel pain.

Council

"Pay attention to the skin. At temperatures, it usually blues. If she is pale - this is an unfavorable symptom, such a state is called "pale hyperthermia". Then, as a rule, doctors prescribe not only the antipyretic, but also a spasmolitic. If the high temperature fails to bring down the house or if complications appear - hospitalization may be required. "

And when to call to the ambulance?

Call an ambulance if on the background of temperature (6):

- You do not sweat, dry skin and very hot to the touch,

- You barely breathe, and the chest squeezes pain,

- Do not stop vomiting or diarrhea,

- sowed the neck,

- there was a red rash, similar to hemorrhage under the skin,

- High stomach hurts

- Highly hurts or swells any part of the body,

- the body drives convulsions,

- confused,

- Cuts eyes when looking at the light,

- You notice any nonypical symptoms that seem dangerous.

- You accepted the antipyretic, and it did not affect.

Recipe

one. If you feel normally, the temperature below 38 ° C tablets can not be shot down.

2. If the fever gives torment - accept paracetamol, ibuprofen or naproxen, whatever showing a thermometer.

3. If the temperature holds 3 days or is immediately accompanied by other alarming symptoms, call a doctor.

four. If, at any temperature, you have convulsions, vomiting or diarrhea, there is no sweat, breathing difficult, the neck muscles sick or a consciousness impeded - call an ambulance.

five. If you have a mercury thermometer, replace it on the migratory, electronic or infrared.

Author: Daria Shipicheva.

This article was published on the site "Just ask."

Sources:

  1. Fever: First AID.
  2. GalinsTan Thermometer Is More Accurate Than Digital For The Measurement of Body Temperature in Children.

  3. Infrared Ear Thermometry Compared WITH RECTAL THERMOMETRY IN CHILDREN: A SYSTEMATIC REVIEW.

  4. FEVER: Suppress or Let IT Ride?

  5. Fever: First Aid

  6. FEVER.

  7. Vital Signs (Body Temperature, Pulse Rate, Respiration Rate, Blood Pressure).

  8. Evaluation of Clinical Thermometers for Accuracy and Reliability.

  9. Minamat Convention on Mercury.

  10. How to use electronic thermometers.

  11. Fever Treatment: Quick Guide to Treating a Fever.

  12. WHEN PLENTY IS TOO MUCH: Water INTOXICATION IN A PATIENT WATER INFECTION.

  13. Choosing The Best Fever Reducer.

  14. Aspirin.

  15. Reye's Syndrome: Why Aspirin and Children Don't Mix.

High temperature (fever, hyperthermia) is a normal and healthy body reaction to infection - bacterial or viral. Actually, fever is a symptom of the disease, not a disease. Increase the temperature inside the body helps to kill the virus or bacteria that cause infection.

High body temperature is considered if this temperature is 38 ° C or higher. The brain area, called the hypothalamus, regulates the body temperature. If the body temperature rises above or falls below 37 ° C, the hypothalamus begins to adjust the temperature.

The degree of heat may not indicate how serious the disease. With a minor disease, for example, a cold, a temperature can rise, and with a very serious infection, the temperature may be insignificant or completely absent. Along with fever, other symptoms are important.

High temperature symptoms

Lightweight (subfebrile) Temperature 37.1-37.9

With a light temperature, a blush appears, fatigue is felt, on the touch the body is warm. Headache may appear. As a rule, a man with a light temperature can perform ordinary everyday affairs.

Moderate (febrile) temperature (from 38 ° to 38.9 ° C)

High (pyretic) Temperature (from 39 ° to 41 ° C)

With moderate and high temperature, the heat is felt on the touch, chills appear or trembling. Because of the feeling of weakness, you want to lie.

Excessive (hyperpirelic) temperature (41 ° C or higher)

With excessive temperature, strong weakness is felt, a person is hard to move, the appetite disappears. Quickly quickly, especially in children, dangerous signs of dehydration appear: rare urge to urination, skin pallor, dry skin, etc.

The reasons

Common states that can cause high body temperature include:

  • Acute respiratory infections,
  • influenza and flu-like states
  • gastroenteritis,
  • ENT infection (sinusitis, tonsillitis, otitis, etc.),
  • kidney infections or urinary tract,
  • infectious childhood diseases, such as chickenpox, scarletin, rubella (rubella), cough and rheumatic fever,
  • heatstroke,
  • The teething of teeth in babies can cause light subfebrile heat and others.

After vaccination, the temperature can also climb - this is considered an option for the norm.

Diagnosis of fever

Despite the fact that the temperature is easy to measure the thermometer, the cause of its lift is possible to determine only after clarifying all the symptoms and preceding states.

Treatment of fever

Increased body temperature is part of the immune system reaction on bacteria, viruses and other pathogens. Helps the body to deal with infection. However, very high temperature can sometimes lead to complications.

Depending on the age, the physical condition and the main cause of the fever, the decrease in temperature is safe at home.

The most common methods for the treatment of fever include pharmacy non-prescription drugs. Children and adolescents should not be taken aspirin, because it is associated with a disease called the Syndrome of Reia.

Reducing the elevated body temperature at home promotes:

  • abundant drink (water, compotes, juices, rehydrating drinks, etc.),
  • bed mode
  • Saving coolness indoors
  • Light clothing, not a warming body.

High Temperature Treatment

Typically, parents take care of their child at home, and pediatricians recommend starting the temperature to reduce the temperature if it rose to 38.5 ° C. It can be safely given in turn drug based on ibuprofen and paracetamol in the age dose. In addition to the reception of children's pharmacy antipyretics in the dosage, appropriate age and weight of the child, follows:

  • Sewing a child to linen
  • do not connect, not to cover with a warm blanket;
  • give a child a lot of fluid;
  • Regularly check the child's condition at night;
  • Offer a child easy food.

You should not wipe or pour a child with cold water.

Urgently call the pediatrician at home if your child:

  • under 3 months and he has a temperature of 38 ° C,
  • age from 3 to 6 months, and temperatures 39 ° C and higher
  • If, besides high temperature, there are other signs of illness, such as rash and others,
  • High temperature keeps more than 5 days,
  • High temperature in the child is not reduced by paracetamol or ibuprofen,
  • Signs of dehydration appeared - rare urination, spawned eyes and lack of tears, if the child is crying.

High temperature in adult

Many reasons can cause high temperatures in adults, but most often it means that an infectious agent is penetrating into the body. However, high temperature can also be caused by noncomfect causes, so it is important to monitor all your symptoms and, if a high temperature is kept for more than 3 days, you should contact a physician. In addition to establishing an objective reason that caused the fever, the therapist recommends the antipyretic agent.

In elevated pressure

The simultaneous increase in body temperature and blood pressure indicators often occurs suddenly, without any prerequisites. The most serious diseases that may indicate high pressure and body temperature are vegetative disorders, kidney disease, disruption of the thyroid gland. In such cases, you should contact the therapist.

Author

Deputy. chief doctor, therapist

Experience 10 years old

+7 (495) 032-15-21

Heat - A typical symptom with many diseases. It is focusing on the temperature, we often define, a man is sick or not. But this is not quite right, because the temperature is only a manifestation of the disease, and not the disease itself. Therefore, knock down the temperature - does not mean to recover. It is necessary not only to fight with a high temperature, but to determine which disease it caused, and to treat it. And for this you need to consult a doctor.

Signs of high temperature

Image 1: Temperature - Clinic Family DoctorThe fact that the temperature rises, the following signs (symptoms) can say:

  • The feeling of weakness that sounded suddenly fatigue, a general painful state;
  • chills (light chills with slightly elevated temperature and strong - with high);
  • dry skin and lips;
  • headache, lubrication in the body;
  • loss of appetite;
  • sweating ("throws in sweat");
  • arrhythmia.

If you are experiencing any of these symptoms, it will not be worthwhile to deliver a thermometer

What is considered to be high temperatures?

Normal temperature is usually considered to be the temperature of 36.6 ° C. But in fact, the temperature is in a rather wide range.

During the day, the body temperature is quite fluctuating. The lowest temperature is observed in the morning, immediately after awakening; Maximum - in the evening, on the outcome of the day. The difference can be somewhere 0.5 ° C. Physical activity, stress, ordinary meal, alcohol consumption, staying in the bath or on the beach can raise the temperature. In women, temperature fluctuations are also associated with ovulation. In a few days before ovulation, the temperature decreases, and upon the occurrence of ovulation - increases.

On average, the normal temperature is considered to be the temperature from 35 ° to 37 ° C. In children under the age of 3 years, temperatures up to 37.5 ° C are also considered an option for the norm. It is important where you measure the temperature. You can focus on 36.6 ° C if you put a thermometer under the mouse. If the thermometer holds in the mouth ( Oral temperature ), then the normal temperature will be 0.5 ° C above (36.8-37.3 ° C). In order to obtain normal values ​​when measuring the temperature in the rectum ( Rectal temperature ), I will need to add another half-grade (norm 37.3-37.7 ° C). If the temperature is measured under the temperature under the mouse, the temperature in the range is 37-38 ° C, high - above 38 ° C.

Causes anxiety or temperature rising above 38 ° C, or temperatures up to 38 ° C, which remains for a long time ( Subfebrile temperature ).

When the temperature rise is dangerous?

High body temperature is an undoubted sign that in the body there is a pathological process, as a rule, an inflammatory nature. The higher the temperature, the faster it rises or longer holds, the more seriously there may be a problem. That is why the high temperature scares.

Meanwhile, in itself, the temperature rise in most cases is a protective reaction to infection penetration. At high temperature, the activity of pathogenic microorganisms is reduced, and the protective forces of the body, on the contrary, are intensified: the exchange of substances, blood circulation is accelerated, antibodies are highlighted faster. But it increases the burden on many organs and systems: cardiovascular, respiratory. High temperature oppress the nervous system leads to dehydration. It is possible to occur circulatory disorders in the internal organs (due to an increase in viscosity and blood coagulation). Therefore, a high temperature that holds for a long time can be a danger in itself. Also dangerous is the ultra-high temperature (above 41 ° C).

Do I need to shoot down the temperature or not?

It is not worth a hurry to riveting the temperature. First of all, the patient should inspect the doctor. The recommendations of the doctor should be followed: if it advises to bring down the temperature, then you need to shoot down. The doctor makes decisions on the basis of the overall picture of the disease and evaluation of the patient's condition, that is, the recommendations are always individual.

However, if the patient is seriously tolerated the temperature, and the temperature is high (39 ° C or higher), then it can be given the antipyretic drug, strictly observing the instructions indicated on the package. At the same time it is necessary to understand that you are struggling with a symptom, not a disease.

The correct course of treatment implies the establishment of the cause of high temperature and carrying out a set of measures aimed at treating the disease that caused its increase.

Causes of high temperature

Any inflammatory process can cause temperature increase. The nature of inflammation can be different - bacterial, viral, fungal. In most cases, the temperature is the nature of the concomitant symptom: for example, when otitis - hurts ("pulls") the ear and the temperature is increased ...

The temperature draws special attention when other symptoms are not observed. Temperature against the background of standard signs of ORVI is usual, but only one high temperature scares.

Diseases in which high temperature can be observed without other symptoms :

  • ORVI and flu. Influenza, and in some cases other ORVIs can begin with a sudden rise of temperature. In this case, the catarrhals begin slightly later (closer to the evening or the next day);

  • angina. Along with the temperature, there is usually pain in the throat when swallowing. The sore throat is quite quickly intensified, so it is impossible not to notice;

  • Windmill (chickenpox). Typically start of the windmill - high temperature. Characteristic rashes can appear only by 2-3 days of the disease;

  • Abscess (accumulation of pus in surface tissues or in internal organs). With an abscess temperature "floats": Temperature peaks can be interconnected by normal temperature during the day (as opposed to a typical "ordinary" infectious disease of the temperature chart - when the lowest temperature is observed after the morning awakening, and in the evening it is growing);

  • Inflammations of the urogenital system (pyelonephritis, glomerulonephritis) are usually manifested by high temperature and pain in the renal projection. But in some cases, pain may be absent;

  • appendicitis - can also leak without pain;

  • meningitis and encephalitis (inflammation of cerebral shells of infectious origin). In this case, the high temperature is accompanied by a strong headache, nausea, violation of vision. A characteristic symptom - the tension of the muscles of the neck (the chin is impossible to omit to the chest);

  • Hemorrhagic fever (usually the infection occurs when the bite of wild animals, for example, mouse-tolets). There is also its own characteristic symptoms - a decrease (up to stop) urination, the emergence of subcutaneous hemorrhages (point redness of the skin, rash), muscle pain.

Increased temperature (up to 37.5-38 ° C) without pronounced other symptoms may be observed at:

Also with increasing temperature flows the following diseases:

  • Inflammation of the lungs (pneumonia). Inflammation of the lungs is a common cause of high temperature. It is usually observed in breast pain, shortness of breath, cough;

  • Infectious diseases of the gastrointestinal tract (gastroenterocolites). Here the temperature acts as a side symptom. Main complaints: abdominal pain, diarrhea, nausea, vomiting;

  • Viral hepatitis A, which is characterized by the appearance of jaundice color of the skin and eye proteins;

  • other viral diseases - measles, rubella, epidemic vapotitis (pig), mononucleosis, poliomyelitis, etc.;

  • Chronic diseases of the urinary system (chronic pyelonephritis, cystitis), in women - chronic salpingofrit. Along with a subfebrile temperature, abdominal pains and urination disorders may be observed;

  • sexually transmitted diseases (gonorrhea, syphilis, urogenital infections - toxoplasmosis, trichomoniasis, ureaplasmosis, etc.);

  • Chronic myocarditis and endocarditis. In this case, the usual symptom - pain in the field of heart;

  • Autoimmune diseases (rheumatism, systemic red lupus, etc.).

This, of course, is not a complete list of diseases capable of increasing temperature

High temperature in a child

Image 2: Temperature - Clinic Family DoctorThe child will not say that he has a high temperature. Even already relatively large children, including students in elementary school, as a rule, cannot correctly evaluate their state of health. Therefore, parents need to carefully follow the condition of the child. To suspect the temperature rise in the following features:

  • The child becomes unexpectedly sluggish or, on the contrary, restless and capricious;
  • He is tormented by thirst (all the time asks to drink);
  • mucous membranes become dry (lip dryness, language);
  • Bright blush or, on the contrary, unusual pallor;
  • eyes blush or shine;
  • The child sweats;
  • Pulse and breathing. The normal pulse is 100-130 beats per minute in a dream and 140-160 during wakefulness. By two years, the frequency is reduced to 100-140 beats per minute. The normal respiratory frequency also depends on the age, for a two-month-old child, it is 35-48 breaths per minute, for age from year to three 28-35 breaths.

You can measure the body temperature in the axillary or inguinal depression you can mercury thermometer (it most accurately shows the temperature), rectally - only electronic. It can be rectally measured only at a small child (up to 4-5 months), older children oppose the procedure, as it is unpleasant. For rectal temperature measurement, the thermometer tip is lubricated with children's cream, the legs of the child rise, as when it is washed. The tip of the thermometer is introduced into the rectum to a depth of 2 cm.

We should not forget that in children up to a year normal temperature is considered to be temperatures up to 37.5 ° C, and even up to 3 years, such a temperature does not always mean that the child is sick. It is impossible to measure the temperature when the child is very worried, crying, or it is strongly ukutane - the temperature in these cases will be expected above. It can also increase the body temperature or a hot bath or too high in the room.

In young children, the temperature can rise up to 38.3 ° C for reasons not related to diseases, such as:

  • overheating (as a result of excessive wrapping, staying under direct sunlight or disruption of drinking mode), especially under 3 months;
  • Creek;
  • constipation (if the child is being worn, the temperature can grow);
  • teething (one of the most frequent causes).

If it does not seem that the temperature is caused by one of these reasons, it holds and does not fall or, even more so, it grows, it is necessary to urgently consult a doctor. At temperatures above 38 ° C, you need to consult a doctor in any case.

What to do at elevated temperature

While the temperature rises, the patient beats the chills, it is cold. I want to get dressed as much as possible, wrapped in a blanket, and it is natural. But as soon as the temperature rose, and the patient was hot, it is necessary to take care so that there was no overvel overheating: it is necessary to change clothes (or disguise the sick child) into light cotton clothing. You can cover the package.

Bed regime is recommended, but if the child, despite the temperature is active, it is not necessary to drive into the bed with a silt, although it is worth keeping excessive activity that can lift the temperature even more.

The air in the room where the patient is located, should be fresh and cool. The room must be tired, removing the patient for the time of airports to another room.

At high temperatures you need to drink more. You can drink a little, but constantly. Great fruit fruit, compotes, diluted juices, tea with lemon, green tea.

Do not take a shower or bath. It can be watched with water temperature or vinegar (9% vinegar solution are diluted with water in a 1: 1 ratio). Little children wipe the vinegar is not recommended. Wasten with cold water or alcohol can lead to an increase in fever.

The antipyretic means must be taken to appoint a doctor, strictly observing the instructions.

In some cases at high temperature Show an ambulance :

  • If a vomiting is observed against the background of the temperature;
  • If the temperature is accompanied by the appearance of rash;
  • in febrile cramps and other difficult conditions;
  • If at temperatures above 38.5 ° C, headache, inhibition, drowsiness are observed;
  • If the temperature continues to rise or does not fall, despite the accepted antipyretic drugs;
  • At temperatures above 39.5 ° C.

High temperatures - an unpleasant symptom characteristic of many diseases, the correct indicator of the presence of the disease. To knock down the indicator to the norm - does not mean to cure, and you also need to know what temperature to shoot down. It is necessary not only to achieve a decrease in temperature, facilitating the condition of the patient, but also to eliminate the source of the inflammatory process.

To effectively deal with the disease, the help of a qualified physician, which will determine the cause of the state manifested by:

  • in chills of varying degrees of severity;
  • feeling the decline of forces;
  • headache, appearance of fraud;
  • increased sweating;
  • arrhythmia;
  • loss of appetite;
  • dry lips, skin.

Concept of the norm for body temperature

Temperature

Normal body temperature is considered to be 36.6 ° C, but the indicator can fluctuate. The lowest value is marked in the morning hours, the maximum in the evening. Increase in temperature contributes to the use of food, alcohol, physical exercise, the excitation of the nervous system, being under the sun, in the steam room. It is considered the norm, if a person is 36.2 ° C in the morning, and in the evening - 36.7 ° C. A feature of the female organism is to reduce the temperature in a few days before ovulation and an increase in the occurrence of ovulation.

The norm for an adult is the indicator between 35 ° C and 37 ° C, in children until the age of 3 years - up to 37.5 ° C. Total, the temperature of 35 ° C should not cause panic.

How to measure temperature:

  • If you measure under the arm, then the normal value is considered to be 36.6 ° C;
  • If in the mouth, then the indicator is higher on the half generation;
  • If in the rectum, then to get the result, reduce 1 degrees from the value on the thermometer.

The exceeding the norm is considered the range from 37.1 ° C to 38 ° C. If the subfebrile temperature is preserved for a long time, measures must be taken. The indicator from 38.1 ° C is an already high temperature requiring urgent helping the body.

Why is it dangerous when the temperature rises above 38 ° C?

If there is a strong temperature, then this is a sure sign of sharply exacerbating pathology. In 99% of cases, this inflammatory process. If the condition is long in nature, it means that the failure in the body is serious, so without qualified medical care can not do. The body of the patient reacts to an infection, exciting immunity, accelerating the metabolism, the production of antibodies, enhancing blood circulation.

At this time, the microbes lose activity, but the respiratory and cardiac system carry an increased load. The nervous system gets a blow, the body loses water. If the condition does not change, the temperature is kept, then blood circulation will deteriorate in the internal organs. The highest is the most dangerous stage when the indicator rises above 41 ° C. Before the arrival of the doctor, the patient needs to take the antipyretic agents from temperature.

Why increase the temperature?

Sometimes it seems that the temperature appears for no reason. But any inflammatory process can cause this condition. Inflammation may appear due to fungi, viruses, bacteria. Often the temperature is 38.5 ° C - it is a concomitant symptom, for example, with a bough in the ear or throat, against the background of the signs of ARVI. Patients scares asymptomatic increase in temperature, which is observed:

  • At the early stage of influenza, ORVI - when there are no catarrhal signs;
  • with angina - simultaneously with sore throat;
  • In the windmill - in the first 2-3 days of the disease, the temperature appears and then rash;
  • in abscess - in the fight against ingred, the temperature peaks are replaced by normal indicators during the day;
  • When glomerulonephritis, pyelonephritis - with inflammation in the kidneys;
  • in appendicitis - often without pain;
  • with hemorrhagic fever - when the bite of wild animals, muscle pain, rash;
  • When encephalitis, meningitis - simultaneously with the tension of the cervical muscles, if it is impossible to lower the chin to the chest, pain in the head, impaired vision, nausea.

What should I do if you find a symptom?

If the patient is cold, it is hot, what to do at temperatures? When chills, he should be covered with a blanket, and when it becomes hot, wear dry, lightweight clothes. You can cover the sheet. The main mode of the patient is bed. If the child does not want to lie, make sure that he does not engage in too active games, warning the overheating of the body.

It is necessary to ensure that the air is periodically updated in the room. At the time of ventilation, the patient can be released into another room. To replenish the stocks of the fluid in the body you need to constantly, gradually drink green tea, diluted juices, frost, compotes. Water procedures can not be taken, it is allowed only to wip the water with an adult water with vinegar 9% in the 1: 1 ratio. If you wash with alcohol or cool water, you can exacerbate fever.

Urgent challenge of ambulance during the chills

If the temperature has become high, it is recommended to call an ambulance in the following cases:

  • headache and temperature from 38.5 ° C, drowsiness, inhibition;
  • stomach hurts and temperature, especially if more vomiting, diarrhea;
  • rash;
  • convulsions, other severe states;
  • lack of effect from the reception of antipyretics;
  • Overcoming the mark of 39.5 ° C.

Ambulance of JSC "Medicine" (Clinic Academician of the Roytberg) in the Central District of Moscow, in case of emergency cases, provides medical care around the clock. The urgent challenge of the brigade can be carried out by phone +7 (495) 229-00-03.

When do you need to go to the doctor?

If the temperature and pressure, cough, lubrication appear at the same time, should not be engaged in self-medication. It is recommended to sign up for a doctor. JSC "Medicine" (Clinic Academician Royteberg) in the center of Moscow invites you to use the services of experienced therapists that will conduct diagnosis of the disease and appoint correct treatment. Do not risk your health, so you immediately sign up for the reception to prevent the development of complications! The clinic has a modern diagnostic department, laboratories for testing analyzes, hospital. If it is necessary, a full range of medical services can be obtained without leaving the clinic.

What to do at high temperature

Treatment of symptom

To figure out how to bring down the temperature, the correct diagnosis is required. An experienced doctor based on the results of analyzes and research determines the cause of fever, prescribes drugs, procedures, or sends to a narrow specialist for additional research. The goal is to identify the source of the inflammatory process to search for the right medical complex. Treatment of high temperature depends entirely on the cause that caused it, and may include antibiotics, antibiotics, probiotics, etc.

Symptom in pregnancy

The temperature in pregnant women rises above the limit of the norm in the diseases of ARVI, the flu. It can harm the baby, especially if the mother takes medicines containing aspirin. Therefore, pregnant women with fever need urgent consultation of the doctor to appoint the correct dose of medicines. If the temperature leap is small, you can drink homeopathic remedies appointed by your doctor.

Simultaneously with tablets on 1 trimester, you can drink herbal teas, fruit, compotes, juices. At later dates - drink concentrated herbal infusions that do not use in large quantities to avoid edema. Healing properties have leafs of leaves, raspberry berries, mother-and-stepmother, plantain, White Willow's infusion. Help wiping with acetic solution.

Treatment at home

If you discovered cold symptoms and temperatures above 37 ° C and weakness, you can start taking homemade tools that support the body. If the value on the thermometer does not exceed 38.5 ° C and the body is more or less sensitive, it is not necessary to shoot down the temperature. Malicious bacteria are perished at this time, and immunity works for complete power.

However, if the patient's condition is severe, it does not tolerate the temperature, it needs to be shot down. At 40 ° C, the blood begins to thick, turn out, so the antipyretic means should be done. In order not to cause negative impact on the internal organs, many patients prefer folk remedies with a soft effect.

Folk remedies from the heat for children:

  • Children's enemas with soda mortar (for 1 cup of water 1 tsp soda) or chamomile decoction;
  • Wipe the body of the child with juice from green grapes;
  • Wear a 15-minute socks moistened with water and vinegar solution in dilution 1: 1;
  • Babes and children under 3 years old can be briefly wrapped in a wet sheet or towel to facilitate the state.

If the temperature is 39 ° C or 40 ° C in adults, it must be shot down:

  • wiping and cold compress - cotton fabric are wetted with water room temperature or water solution with vinegar;
  • abundant drink - it is necessary to prevent dehydration of the body, taking drinking water, fresh juices or warm herbal chasters, honey water (1 cup of warm water 1 tsp. Honey);
  • Fasting - give the body to rest (food - load), concentrate forces on the fight against inflammation.

General Tips for Patients with Temperature

Patients with fever recommended:

  • bed mode;
  • Regular air ventilation;
  • unloading days;
  • abundant drink;
  • Lightweight clothing.

When is the temperature from 37.5 to 38 ° C without symptoms?

The temperature without symptoms in the range between 37.5-38 ° C is observed:

  • when problems with thyroid gland;
  • tuberculosis;
  • allergies;
  • neurological diseases;
  • oncology;
  • pneumonia;
  • gastroenterocolites;
  • viral hepatitis A.

Do not forget about such serious diseases that occur with the increase in temperature as:

  • Systemic red lupus, rheumatism, other autoimmune processes;
  • endocarditis, myocarditis;
  • syphilis, gonorrhea, urinary infection;
  • Krasnuha, Kor, other viral infections.

What if the temperature appeared after the vaccination?

Temperature after vaccination is not always a complication. Often, its appearance is a normal reaction of the body on a foreign body, causative agents of disease. The immune system gets a load and activates the fight against the disease occurring in a light form. How the body will respond to the introduction of substances, not a single physician can make an accurate forecast. Not everyone becomes bad after vaccination.

It should be remembered about contraindications for vaccination and do not make vaccinations during and after the transfer of infectious diseases, exacerbations of chronic diseases, allergies, complications from previous vaccination, and other cases that the doctor recalls you. To get a complete consultation, you can contact JSC "Medicine" (Clinic Academician Roytberg).

How and why measure basal temperature?

The basal temperature is measured at the time of awakening. It helps to determine the day of ovulation for planning conception and attempt to determine the floor of the future child. Basal thermometry is carried out in the first minutes after sleep, before physical activity. For measurements, the mouth cavity is suitable, the rectum, the vagina. For more information about the methods for determining the day of ovulation, you will tell you the gynecologists of JSC "Medicine" (Clinic Academician of the Roytberg) in the Cao. After consulting, you can plan a pregnancy up to a day, and also try to influence the sex of the future baby.

Do I need to shoot down a high temperatureWhy, with each cold illness, we look so carefully that the thermometer shows us? What is more determining the tactics of our further treatment: well-being or numbers on a thermometer? And if due to the characteristics of the body, the temperature in infectious disease increases slightly, as it happens in the elderly, how can we determine how serious the situation is?

For us, an increase in body temperature is always an alarm, because it is often quite one of the symptoms of any disease. We understand that the decrease in temperature after the reception of the antipyretic drugs will not be an indicator of recovery. The right approach to your health requires first to identify the possible cause of hyperthermia.

Causes of temperature rise

Increased body temperature in response to any pathological impact is a non-specific response of the body that is needed to start and strengthen the mechanisms of protection. Under normal conditions, our body preserves the relative constancy of the temperature (temperature homeostasis). From overheating the body is protected by increasing heat transfer processes: intensive sweating, expansion of subcutaneous capillaries. The restructuring of thermoregulation processes with reinstalling to a higher temperature level is fundamentally different from the normal response of the body to overheat and is called "fever".

The center of thermoregulation is in the hypothalamus, and sometimes hyperthermia can develop during its direct damage (brain injuries, brain tumors), but these are quite rare situations. In the overwhelming majority of cases to reinstall the center of thermoregulation, the invasion of bacteria, viruses or other harmful substances leads to a higher point. External and internal "stimuli" of the center of thermoregulation are called "pyrogens". External (exogenous) pyrogens are certain substances entering the organism from the environment. Most often they are infectious nature: toxins and microorganisms metabolism products. Internal (endogenous) pyrogens are formed in the body with inflammatory processes, allergic reactions, decay of tumor tissues. Thus, the spectrum of diseases accompanied by an increase in body temperature is wide enough [one] .

Among the variety of pathologies, it is fundamentally distinguished by two main groups: infectious and noncommunicable. Differentiate the "infectious" and "non-infectious" fever allows the combination of a clinical picture of the disease with laboratory indicators.

Increased temperature due to the infectious process, occurs during acute and chronic diseases caused by bacteria, viruses and fungi.

Noncommunicable reasons:

  • after hemotransphus (blood transfusion);
  • After the introduction of vaccines, serum;
  • if there is in the body of foci of aseptic (non-infectious) inflammation (for example, with pancreatitis, gout, thrombophlebitis and other diseases);
  • with allergic and autoimmune diseases;
  • In the development of malignant tumors (including the hematopoietic system - leukemia), the body hyperthermia enters the notion of the so-called paraneoplastic reaction of the body;
  • in the presence of extensive hematomas (hemorrhages) - an increase in temperature in this case is caused by the strengthened destruction of blood cells (erythrocyte hemolysis);
  • if there are necrotic (dead) tissues (for example, with myocardial infarction);
  • In case of damage to the center of thermoregulation in the brain (for example, after a crank-brain injury or in the presence of a brain tumor);
  • In some endocrine diseases (for example, with hyperthyroidism - the pathology of the thyroid gland, accompanied by its hyperfunction) [2] .

Degregation of temperature

The degree of increase depends on many factors, including from the state and reactivity of the organism, concomitant intoxication.

A small increase in body temperature in some cases is a normal organism reaction: with intense physical exertion, after meals, with strong emotional voltage, in women during ovulation period (increase by 0.6-0.8˚C). High ambient temperature also causes hyperthermia: in hot weather the body temperature is 0.1-0.5˚c higher than in the cold time.

Degregation of temperatureThe normal body temperature of an adult during the day fluctuates, remaining in the range of 36 - 37˚C (when measured in the armpit). The permissible range of daily oscillations is usually 0.1-0.6˚C and should not exceed 1˚C. The maximum body temperature is registered in the evening from 17 to 21 hours, and the minimum - in the morning from 3 to 6 hours.

Increased body temperature from 37 to 38˚C is called subfebrile (from lat. Sub under, below + Febris Fever). Moderately elevated from 38 to 39˚C is called febrile. High from 39 to 41˚C is called a pyretic (from Greek. Pyretos heat). Excessively high body temperature Over 41˚C got the name of hyperpiratory [one] .

What is the danger of excessive temperature

In addition to the destructive effect on pathogenic microorganisms and stimulation of an immune response, a high temperature has a number of negative effects.

Hyperthermia changes the metabolism, causes the loss of water and salts. In case of overheating, the process of sweating is significantly enhanced. Loss of fluid is accompanied by blood thickening, the risk of blood cloves increases.

High temperature is a greater danger to people with cardiovascular diseases. When it enhanced 1˚C, the pulse increases by 8-10 beats per minute. The heart works with high frequency, in adverse conditions for thickening blood and metabolic disorders. Sometimes, with hypertermia in patients with cardiac pathology, rhythm disorders are recorded, which is due to the activation of the sympathy-adrenal system and electrolyte imbalance.

In the temperature of the patients, there is a frequency surface breathing: the frequency of respiratory movements is increasing, but the depth of the breath is reduced. It is not enough oxygen to organ them and tissue, hypoxia develops.

High temperatures accelerates redox processes, which means that the need of cells in oxygen sharply increases: with an increase in temperature by 0.6˚C, the level of main exchange increases by approximately 10%. Due to lack of oxygen in cells, a large number of "acidic" metabolites are formed, which violate the function of tissues and organs. Such a failure of metabolic processes, leading to the "acidification" of the body, is called "acidosis". That is why the fever can accompany intoxication. It is most often observed in children, but if the inflammatory process takes place for a long time, intoxication occurs in adults.

With increasing activity of metabolic processes, carbohydrate stocks are used, after exhausting their stocks, fats and proteins are used. As a result of the reinforced breakdown of proteins, their loss of up to 300-400 grams per day is possible. Therefore, with a fever, it is necessary to give children easier carbohydrates (for example, juices).

In the hyperthermia, the function of the gastrointestinal tract is oppressed: the appetite decreases, the secretion of enzymes decreases, the motility and suction processes are disrupted. As a result, the development of impaired suction syndrome and constipation is possible. Especially adversely affects the sick elderly.

The hazardous states of the central nervous system are threatened with patients with a high body temperature, due to increasing the permeability of the hematorecephalic barrier and the insufficient intake of oxygen to the brain. Hyperthermia may be accompanied by excitation. The most dangerous complication found in children with an immature thermoregulation system - febrile cramps [3] [four] [five] .

Which temperature needs to be reduced, and what no

The increase in temperature is an evolutionary mechanism for protection against pathogenic microorganisms. When contacting viruses, bacteria and their toxins, the cells of the immune system (leukocytes) produce special substances that run the inflammatory response. The temperature response is accompanied by a number of characteristic changes in metabolism and physiological functions aimed at strengthening cellular and humoral immunity. Under conditions of high temperature, antibodies and protection cells are actively produced, the reproduction of viruses and bacteria is oppressed. Many pathogens become sensitive to antibacterial drugs only at elevated temperatures. Its unreasonable decline inhibits the severity of the immune response. However, very high temperature is dangerous for the body. Hyperthermia above 40˚C can lead to the development of brain edema and violation of the functions of vital organs.

The threshold temperature at which it is necessary to decide on the reception of antipyretic agents is considered from 38˚C and higher. But each person transfers hypertermia in different ways. Therefore, it is necessary to focus on the well-being and the presence of concomitant diseases. This is especially important for children.

Body temperature rise above 38˚C is dangerous for children of the first 6 months of life, as well as for children from 6 months. Up to 3 years, which are included in the risk group for the development of febrile cramps. In accordance with the recommendations of the antipyretic therapy, they are prescribed to children of the first 3 months of life at temperatures above 38.0 ° C, children over 3 months (previously healthy) - above 39.0˚C.

Adult patients with severe diseases of the respiratory, cardiovascular and central nervous systems, the flow of which can deteriorate during fever, shows a decrease in temperature above 38.0˚C.

For young people, without concomitant pathology, the reception of antipyretic drugs is shown at 39.0˚C and higher.

The question of choosing the drug is solved in each case individually [6] [7] .

Increase temperature in newborns

Separately, it should be said about raising the temperature in newborns and children of the first year of life.

Increase temperature in newborns

Immediately after birth, the child's body is quite ready for independent thermoregulation. The newborn has a fairly developed sweating and ability to vasomotor reactions. However, the imbalance between heat generation and heat transfer develops in babies more often than at a later age. In the first year of life, due to the insufficiently severe subcutaneous fatty fiber and the relative increase in the specific surface of the body always prevails the process of heat transfer. Additional increase in heat generation is carried out in newborns by increasing the oxidative processes in the buoy adipose tissue (non-constructive thermogenesis). Contracting thermogenesis (the ability to strengthen heat generation due to involuntary muscle contraction) is missing. During the day after birth, children show the ability to develop fever, but at first it is less pronounced than at an older age. Therefore, infectious diseases in breast children may not be accompanied by a significant increase in body temperature, but if this happens, it indicates the severity of the disease [8] .

Temperature at COVID-19

The initial manifestations of coronavirus infection are similar to many sharp respiratory viral infections. Weakness, head and muscular pain can go, cataral manifestations are joined to them: nasal congestion, lightweight throat. Then, as with many ORVI, the temperature rise from 37˚C to 39˚C. Such an organism reaction is recorded in most patients with COVID-19. The duration and level of temperature rise in the infection of SARS-COV-2 depends on many factors: an immune response, the amount of causative agent, developing complications in the body. Some tolerate infection without a significant increase.

The temperature response at COVID-19 is a natural response of the body, mobilizing the immune system when contacting the virus. Therefore, taking antipyretic drugs at temperatures below 38.5˚C is not recommended, with the exception of those situations where the patient does not tolerate the temperature increase.

As a rule, the elevated temperature lasts 1-3 days, sometimes up to 5-6 days. If it is higher than 37.5˚C for five days in a row, this is a reason for treating medical care, since it is possible a more severe course of the disease with the development of complications.

If the high temperature keeps the young man without concomitant chronic pathology, he can cause a doctor to assess the state and appointing appropriate therapy.

If the temperature above 37.5˚C persists within a few days in people over 65 years or having serious accompanying diseases, it is necessary to unambiguously cause "ambulance" for transportation to the hospital.

One of the serious consequences of a new coronavirus infection - hyper-patient reactions. This is an excess immune response that SARS-COV-2 virus provokes.

An indirect feature of the development of the hypervision reaction can be a return rates of temperature. The febrile fever is above 38 degrees after normalization of temperature - this is also a reason to call a doctor at home.

A sharp increase in the temperature of more than 38˚C with a significant deterioration in the well-being and attachment of shortness of shortness of breath - indications for calling the team of ambulance and urgent hospitalization.

The feature of the COVID-19 flow is the long-term preservation of the subfebrile temperature (not higher than 37 degrees). Sub-library can be maintained up to a month in the process of recovery. In this case, in the absence of other symptoms and satisfactory well-being, complications are unlikely [nine] [ten] [eleven] .

When to consult a doctor

With young people, without concomitant pathology, seek medical help with hyperthermia over 39˚C. Patients related to risk groups (elderly age, with chronic diseases, small children, pregnant women), it is worth calling a doctor to the house already with subfebrile 37.9˚C and moderate 38.0-39.0˚C fever, for timely appointment Therapy.

A ambulance brigade must be caused by the development of severe intoxication, signs of respiratory, heart, renal or polyorgan deficiency.

Emergency medical care is required by temperature patients with any signs of damage to the central nervous system (confusion, excitement or inhibition, seizures).

If the fever above 38.5˚C does not stop with antipyretic drugs in the recommended age dosages within 48 hours, it is also worth calling an ambulance brigade so that the doctors have provided urgent assistance and solved the issue of hospitalization. [12] .

findings

Increase temperature - the body of the body about the danger that should not be ignored. A serious occasion for anxiety is hyperthermia in vulnerable groups of the population (children, elderly, pregnant women). But even at a young age and in the absence of chronic diseases, with increasing temperature, seek medical help.

Sources
  1. ↑ ↑ Konkov N.V. Basics of pathology. Fever: Methodological manual / N. V. Konkova. - Irkutsk: IRGUPS MK Zht, 2018. - 17 p.
  2. ↑ Smirnov A.N. Differential diagnosis of hyperthermia during non-infectious pathology. Part 1 / Smirnov A.N., Pogorelskaya E.P., Vasilyev S.A. - Archive of internal medicine. - № 5 (13). - 2013. - P. 44-47.
  3. ↑ File archive for students. Studfiles - Pathophysiology of fever.
  4. ↑ Picus O.I. Children's fever: educational and methodical manual / Picus O.I., Zakirova A.M. // study.-method. manual for students of medical universities. - Kazan: KGMU, 2013. - 56 p.
  5. ↑ Delledge V. M. Feathery. Lectures on clinical diagnosis of internal diseases: monograph / V. M. Delyagin, V. I. Maltsev, A. G. Rumyantsev; Intern. Wedge Foundation. Research - Kiev: Morion, 2007. - 663 p. : Il., Col.il. - ISBN 978-966-7632-96-0
  6. ↑ Kokoreva S.P. Long-term febrile fevers in children / S.P. Kokorev // Russian Medical Journal: Independent Edition for Doctors Practitioners. - 2009. - t. 17, No. 15
  7. ↑ Union of Pediatricians of Russia and the Association of Medical Societies in Quality. - clinical recommendations on the diagnosis and treatment of acute respiratory diseases (ORZ); Treating pneumonia in children. - Editor-in-Chief Academician RAMN and RAS A.A. Baranov - 20 s.
  8. ↑ Zakharova I.N. Pediatrician - about feverish states in children: what you need to know and be able to / Zakharov I.N., Posparatov A.L., Creator T.M., Mashneva E.B. // Russian Medical Academy of Postgraduate Education Ministry of Health of Russia, Moscow. - Medical advice. 2016; 1 (1): 140-147.
  9. ↑ Methodical recommendations of the Ministry of Health of the Russian Federation / Prevention, Diagnostics and Treatment of New Coronavirus Infection COVID-19. Ver. 8 (09/03/2020). - 74 p.
  10. ↑ Medservant. Portal of a Russian doctor. - Multisystem inflammatory syndrome related to COVID-19 is discovered in adults.
  11. ↑ John B.moore., Carl H.June. Cytokine Release Syndrome in Severe Covid-19. - science.-2020. - Vol.368, Issue 6490. - PP. 473-474.
  12. ↑ Morozov I.G. First aid at elevated temperature / Official site of the administration of St. Petersburg. - 2016. - 5 s.

Article author:

Evterena Ekaterina Dmitrievna

Specialty: Therapist, doctor of ultrasound and functional diagnostics .

Common experience: 14 years old .

Education: 2006-2007, Volgograd State Medical University of the Federal Health and Social Development Agency .

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Signs

Increased body temperature in itself is a symptom, that is, a sign of a disease. As for manifestations, which usually accompany hyperthermia, then among them you can allocate the following:

  • headache;
  • feeling of lobs in muscles and joints;
  • Hypersensitivity (tactile, light, sometimes - olfactory);
  • general weakness;
  • decline in appetite;
  • irritable mucous membranes;
  • chills;
  • sweating;
  • deterioration concentration.

The severity of these symptoms is largely depends on the degree of severity of hyperthermia. Simply put, the higher the temperature, the more listed symptoms will be accompanied and the stronger they will disturb the patient. However, one should not forget about individual tolerance. Some patients already at a temperature of 37.5 feel so bad that they are hard to find strength in order to get out of bed and make tea on their own. Others completely calmly transfer much higher temperature values, almost without losing appetite and ability to work.

Causes of high temperature

If the temperature rose, it is not always caused by the activity of pathogenic microorganisms. Hyperthermia may have purely physiological reasons: nervous voltage, physical exertion and overeating.

However, in most cases, the increase in temperature is still due to the immune response of the body. With infectious and inflammatory diseases, hyperthermia occurs as a protective reaction - by increasing the temperature, the body is trying to cope with bacteria and viruses.

Hyperthermia arises due to the activity of pyrogens. These are protein compounds indirectly affecting the temperature regulation center in the hypothalamus - a brain department responsible for many vital functions of the body. Pyrogens are divided into two groups:

  1. Primary (exogenous). As a rule, it is exotoxins - harmful products of the vital activity of bacteria and other microorganisms. This also includes antigens of various origins.
  2. Secondary (endogenous). Under the action of primary pyrogens, the internal protein structures involved in immunological reactions occur. This is secondary pyrogens, which in medicine is called cytokines. It is they activate a whole chain of reactions, as a result of which the hypothalamus receives a signal that it is time to increase body temperature and create conditions unsuitable for the comfortable existence of alien microorganisms.

In the conditions of elevated body temperature, many bacteria cease to function and multiply. However, on this protective effect of fever does not end: cytokines also stimulate the synthesis and bactericidality of leukocytes - blood cells that are responsible for the immune defense of the body.

The list of all sorts of diseases and pathological conditions in which the hyperthermia is celebrated is quite extensive, so here we will list only the most common of them.

The following diseases are most often the causes of temperature increase:

  • Respiratory and focal - colds, bronchitis, pneumonia, flu, pharyngitis, laryngitis, tonsillitis, sinusitis.
  • Intestinal infections - dysentery, salmonellosis, yersiniosis, earsichiosis, rotaviruses, enteroviruses, cholera, botulism.
  • Chronic infections: tuberculosis, syphilis, chronic tonsillitis.
  • Complications in the treatment - postoperative period, reaction to vaccination, complications of antibiotics and other drugs.
  • Oncological diseases - fibromes, adenoma, lymphoma, leukemia, etc.

The causes of temperature rise may also become autoimmune diseases, sepsis, injuries, wicked invasions, allergic reactions and hormonal imbalances.

Figure 1. The main causes of high temperature. Source: Medportal

Types of elevated body temperature

The classification of hyperthermia is carried out immediately in several criteria, but the most popular of them is the degree of severity according to the measurement results. Distinguish the following types:

  • Subfebrile (up to 38 s). There are 2 subspecies.
    • low subfebelitis (up to 37.5 s);
    • High subfebelitis (37.6-38.0 s).
  • Febrile (38.1 - 41.0 s). It is also divided into 2 subspecies:
    • moderate (38.1 - 39.0 s);
    • High (39.1 - 41.0 s).
  • Hyperpiratory (over 41, 0 s).

Diagnostics - how to measure temperature correctly

There are several ways to measure the temperature, while each of them has its own advantages and disadvantages. We will analyze them in more detail.

Axillary

This is good to all familiar way, which involves measuring the temperature in the axillary depression. The indisputable plus is simplicity and convenience, the mines include errors (0.1-0.3 c) in comparison with more accurate ways. In addition, the temperature in different axillary depressures can be slightly different.

Rectal

Temperature is measured in the rear pass. Most often applies in children under 4 years old, which are difficult to persuade calmly keep the thermometer under the arm in a few minutes. Formally, this method of temperature measurement is considered the most accurate.

However, there are a number of reservations. First, it is important to make amendment that in the rectum, the temperature is always slightly higher than in the armpit - the upper boundary of the norm is considered 37.7 C.

Secondly, the rectal temperature may vary depending on the source of the rectum by the carte masses. By the way, for most people, this method causes both aesthetic and physiological discomfort. If in the family there are convinced supporters of rectal measurement of temperature, it is desirable to have their own degrees, which after each use should be disinfected.

Buccal

Measuring temperature is performed in the mouth, preferably under the language. Dignity - more accurate indicators in comparison with the axillary method. The disadvantage - the temperature of the food and liquid used on the eve of the measurement affect the temperature. It is also important not to open the mouth during the measurement - this is also reflected on the accuracy of the result.

other methods

There are some more less common ways to measure temperature:

  • Liquid crystal thermography. It is based on the capture of thermal radiation using liquid crystals (contact method) and a mirror scanning system (remote method). As a result, a multicolored image is displayed on the screen, which is called thermoscopy - about so hostile aliens see people in fantastic films.
  • Thermometry in the field of temporal artery. A new way that is considered the most accurate, but it has not yet been widespread, since infrared thermometers have not yet been firmly entered into our everyday life.
  • Tympanic method. In Russian clinical practice is almost not used - this method is more popular in Germany. Measuring temperature is carried out in the exterior auditory passage area.
  • Vaginal. We usually use women who cannot become pregnant - the temperature (ovulation) is determined by temperature fluctuations (ovulation).

What kind of thermometer is better to use

So far, mercury remains the most common type of thermometer. It gives more accurate results than electronic and does not need to change the batteries. However, in terms of security, he, to put it mildly, is not ideal. Mercury is very toxic, so if there is a small child or an elderly person in the house, which most often smashed thermal people, it is better to accept minimal deviations from the exact result and acquire an electronic analog. By the way, another disadvantage of mercury thermometer is too much measurement duration - on average about 10 minutes. The electronic thermometer copes with its task 3-4 times faster.

Infrared degrees are an excellent combination of accuracy of measurement and safety of use. Their only drawback is high cost, so many prefer to use cheaper options.

Really recently recently appeared Galin-mains thermometers - they are more affordable by price, and even exactly the accuracy of mercury. Galinistan is a mixture of low-toxic liquid metal, so in terms of safety here, too, everything is in order.

In what diseases there are high temperatures

About diseases under which there is an increase in body temperature, we told above. The table below lists the main groups of these pathologies with the average temperature range of temperature values.

Group of diseases Mining Maximum
Respiratory 37.0 40.5
Intestinal infections 37.5 41.5
Oncology 37.0 38.0.
Chronic infections 37.0 37.7
Glice Invasii 37.0 37.5
Autoimmune systemic diseases 37.0 38.0.
Sepsis 37.0 42.5

The table indicates only the values ​​associated with hyperthermia. However, in a number of observations (including during sepsis) there are exceptions when the temperature may not grow, and drop.

Why long the high temperature holds

In most observations, the temperature rises in response to the activity of alien microorganisms. Under a long-term increase in temperature, you can understand both hyperthermia, which is ongoing several days in acute cold or infectious diseases and chronic subfebilitation.

In the first case, the reason usually lies either in the difficult course of the disease, or in improper treatment, when the incorrect diagnosis does not allow to eliminate the cause of fever. If the patient normally transfers an increased temperature, it is better not to shoot down - it will help the body to cope with infection faster.

As for chronic subfebilite, when the temperature of 37-38 s holds for several weeks and longer, then such a state is due to the transition of an infectious disease from the acute phase into chronic. This often occurs as a result of improper treatment. For example, the patient is often not wanting to apply for a doctor's advice, follows the advice of acquaintances who recommend "proven" antibacterial or sulfonilandmid drugs. However, these drugs are often trite not to approach the patient according to the testimony. As a result, the disease briefly goes into remission so that in a short time to take a chronic course.

Important! If the temperature reaches the febrile values ​​(38 s and above) and keeps more than 4 days, you should contact the infectious doctor.

Another common mistake in the treatment of infectious diseases is to stop taking antibiotics at the first signs of improvements, without bringing the course to the end. It also contributes to the chronicization of the disease, and can increase the antibiotic resistance of bacteria.

It should also be taken into account the possibility of developing diseases of the endocrine system and autoimmune pathologies. And sometimes a continuous increase in temperature may be caused by head injuries, as a result of which hypothalamus suffers.

Long hyperthermia in the range of 37-38 C is often noted in the case of herpesviruses that can be masked for other diseases (from respiratory to diseases of the central nervous system). The most famous representative of this group of diseases is the Epstein-Barr virus.

Chronic liver diseases, kidney and gastrointestinal tract with exacerbations can also give rise to temperature. In this case, they will be accompanied by symptoms characteristic of the disease that caused hyperthermia. For example, an increase in temperature when aggravating colitis will be accompanied by painful sensations in the abdomen, a sense of incomplete intestinal emptying, nausea and meteorism.

What should not be done at high temperatures

There are quite a lot of restrictions, and often they affect stereotypes established in home treatment for many years. These are the main mistakes:

  • It should not be carried away by excessively fatty and acute foods - it increases the load on the digestive system, and this interferes with the body to deal with infection. Preference should be given to easily dishes. At the same time, food should not be too hot.
  • It is important to avoid breast feeding, because at elevated temperatures, the proteins contained in milk thickens, which affects taste and digestibility.
  • It is undesirable to drink sweet tea or coffee - a high level of glucose in the body suppresses the activity of leukocytes that ensure the work of immunity. In addition, coffee enhances the dehydration of the body, which can aggravate the course of the disease.
  • You can not soar legs or making hot inhalations and take baths. Such methods only stimulate blood circulation. And this will entail an even greater increase in temperature.
  • Another popular variety of homegrown torture is warm off. Many parents still continue to cover children during fever in a few blankets, pre-laying paragraphs 3 and 4. There is an opinion that it is useful to "go sweat" with fever. In fact, the temperature rises even more by increasing the load on the cardiovascular system.
  • From cold compresses, it is also better to refrain - they really help to reduce the temperature, but in itself a sharp cooling may entail an even greater weakening of immunity.
  • Alcohol must be avoided. At elevated temperature, the patient takes medicines that increase the load on the liver. Alcohol, contrary to a breaking stereotype, does not exterminate microbes, but it has a hepatotoxic effect - it can only aggravate the course of the disease.

High temperature in a child

In the first months of life, the norm is considered an axillary temperature to 37.5 s (rectal - up to 38 s). In children under the age of 3 years, the upper limit of the norms consider the axillary temperature of 37.3 C. Doctors do not recommend churn the temperature in children if it does not exceed 38 C - the body must independently deal with infection. However, with poor tolerability or diseases of the heart or nervous system, it should still be used by antipyretic drugs.

High temperature in adult

As in children over 3 years, adults are considered to be high temperatures from 37 s and above. Some people can feel discomfort already when the temperature approaches the subfebrile mark (that is, about 36.8 c), however, this is not a reason for experiences - it is quite possible that such a state has become a consequence of overwork or nervous voltage.

In adults, it is recommended to shoot down the temperature only with testimony of 38.5 seconds, however, as in the case of children, much depends on the individual tolerability and the state of the body - it should be particularly careful to patients prone to convulsive syndrome. When the thermometer column approaches 39 s, the temperature should be confused without fail, since in this case the protective reaction itself becomes dangerous for the body - the blood coagulation increases, it thickens, and the heart becomes difficult to redistribute it to organs and tissues.

High temperature medication

Admitting drugs to eliminate high temperatures, the doctor must show the flexibility of therapeutic tactics, focusing primarily to eliminate the cause of fever, the overall condition of the patient and its portability of drugs. To reduce the temperature, apply:

  • ibuprofen;
  • paracetamol;
  • acetylsalicylic acid.

Based on these drugs, many medicines are manufactured with various commercial names.

Important! Children under 12 years old acetylsalicylic acid and sodium metamizole are contraindicated due to toxicity and negative impact on blood formation.

For a non-drug reduction temperature at home, you can use wosted by gauze or other cloth moistened in cool water. Do not use vinegar or alcohol for these purposes - they do not have any advantages over ordinary water, but their evaporation enhances the general intoxication of the body.

When should I call an ambulance

The reason for concern can be a sharp leap temperature above 38.5 s, a feeling of cutting in mucous membranes, shortness of breath, light-free. Ambulance brigade should also be caused by suspected infectious diseases:

  • Infertility of consciousness or cramps at the peak of temporary lifting
  • Long fever;
  • rash;
  • vomiting;
  • diarrhea;
  • Blood impurities and mucus in feces.

If at least one of the listed symptoms is observed both in an adult and a child, it follows without a delay to cause an "urgent".

Figure 2. Memo - when you should call an ambulance at elevated temperature. Source: Medportal

Conclusion

Thus, medical tactics at high temperature depends primarily on its cause. With normal tolerance, you should not shoot down the temperature until it reached febrile values. It is also important to remember that mercury degrees, despite its accuracy, in many European countries are not recommended for use due to the high toxicity of mercury.

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